DET TYSKE OMRÅDE
THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

STATSDANNELSER OG REGENTER
Opdateret 12. maj 2012.


Indhold

Indledning

Det tyske eller germanske område har fra den tidlige middelalder til det tyvende århundrede været delt og samlet mange gange og i forskellige kombinationer. Det er derfor temmeligt komplekst at få styr på regenter og regerende fyrstehuse og deres indbyrdes forbindelser.

Som kejserdømme var det tyske rige meget forskelligt fra det romerske kejserrige. De tyske kejsere var til tider kun kejsere af navn, men uden nogen større udøvende magt over de tilknyttede kongeriger; til andre tider havde de stor magt og herskede over store dele af Europa. Til tider var kejsertitlen givet i samdrægtighed med paven, mens den til andre tider var givet imod pavedømmets ønske. I perioder var kejsertitlen ikke benyttet. Tillægsordet »hellig« blev først tilknyttet senere. Kejserdømmet bestod til 1806.

Tyskland var indenrigs et valgkongedømme efter rigsdagen i Forchheim 1077. Tidligere havde det været et arverige, og efter 1077 forblev det i praksis et arverige, indtil Lothar blev valgt i Supplinburg i 1125. Derefter fungerede valgprocedurerne.
[9834 p.132]

I denne tekst opridser jeg nogle enkeltheder om områderne og regenterne. Da hovedparten af kildeteksterne er på engelsk, bibeholdes engelsk i regenttabellerne.

Det Tysk-Romerske Kejserrige fra 800-

Den første kejserslægt er den Karolingiske Slægt, der indledte sin regeringsperiode med Karl den Store.

Karl den Store
Karl den Store blev kronet til kejser i Peterskirken juledag år 800. Senere, i 806, fordelte han sit rige mellem sine tre sønner, således at Karl fik Frankrig og Tyskland = Saxen, der dengang svarede til området mellem Holland og Magdeburg og ned til Harzen. Pepin blev konge over Italien og Bayern, og Ludvig I fik Aquitanien. Ludvig overlevede sine brødre og blev kejser over imperiet efter Karl den Store.

Styrkemæssigt var de adelige familier magtfulde. Der regnes med 42 adelige slægter, hvoraf de 19 var tæt forbundet til kejserslægten. Der var en begrænset centraladministration, og styret hvilede på den tætte tilknytning mellem kejsere og de lokale fyrster.
[9495 p.14, 9690 p.20]

Kirkehistorisk set delte Karl riget i 21 ærkebiskopdømmer, og det nordligste er Hamburg, hvor den første ærkebiskop hed Willehad. Jf. [1919 p.222] var den første dog Ansgar, udnævnt i 831. Karl afholdt koncilier, der var betydende, selv om de ikke kirke-territorialt var særligt omfattende. Der står mere om kirkeforholdene under kirkehistorien.

Ludvig den Fromme
Ludvig I den Fromme delte riget mellem sine tre sønner, Lothar - Pepin - Ludvig, men da en fjerde søn kom til i 823, ønskede faderen, at også denne søn fik en bid af kagen, nemlig Aquitanien, der ellers var lovet Pepin. Denne ændring fik de tre ældste sønner til at gøre oprør. Faderens oprindelige plan var at lade Lothair få Germania, og han blev også forudbestemt til at overtage kejserværdigheden efter faderen.

Pepin skulle være konge over Aquitanien, Pepin I af Aquitaine fra 814, og Ludvig (005) skulle herske over Bayern og omliggende lande. Inden planen gennemføres, døde Pepin i 838.

Da Ludvig den Fromme døde i Ingelheim 840, brød sønnernes oprør for alvor ud, og Ludvig den Tyske og Karl den Skaldede slog sig sammen og kæmpede mod Lothair, der fra Italien forsøgte at få magt også nord for Alperne. Kampenes hovedslag stod i Frankrig ved Fontenoy i 841. De to brødre svor hinanden at stå sammen mod Lothair, og det er fra denne lejlighed, i 842, at vi har det første dokument med sprogene fransk og tysk: den ene svor på fransk og den anden på tysk. I 843 blev alle brødrene forligte, eller Lothair blev tvunget til at acceptere kejserrigets deling. Traktaten kaldes efter byen for Verduntraktaten, men det er usikkert, om det var Verdun ved Meusefloden, eller Verdun-sur-le-Doubs, lidt syd for Dijon, der var stedet.

Nogle måneder senere, i november samme år i Coulaines, sluttede kejseren en traktat med adelen om rigets styring. Denne aftale er senere blevet betragtet som grundlæggelsen af det Vestfrankiske Rige, altså begyndelsen til Frankrigs selvstændighed.

Ved disse aftaler fik Karl den Skaldede Frankrig og Baskerlandet = Vestfranken; Ludvig den Tyske fik Germania, der stadig kan kaldes Østfranken, og Lothair fik Italien, Burgund og en mindre bufferzone, Lotharingien = Lothari Regnum = Lorraine, mellem Karl og Ludvig, men med de vigtige byer: Rom, Pavia og Aachen. Lothair fik også kejserværdigheden.

Bufferzonens nordlige del fra Nordfrisien til Basel og mod vest til Verdun og Brügge dannede Nedre Lothringen og Øvre Lothringen = Lower Lorraine og Upper Lorraine - navne afledt af Lothairs navn. Samme område med nogen forlængelse mod øst kendes også under navnet Austrasien.

Sønden derfor strækker Burgund sig til Marseilles, grænsende mod øst til Lombardiet i Italien. Mod vest ligger Aquitanien og norden for Aquitanien kaldes Frankrigsområdet for Neustrien.

Da Lothair døde i 855 havde ingen af hans tre sønner produceret en mandlig arving, så Lothair IIs Lothringen deltes efter hans død i 869 mellem Ludvig den Tyske og Karl den Skaldede. Da kejser Ludvig II dør i 875, blev Karl den Skaldede kejser. Han fik kun lov at beholde værdigheden i et par år og døde i 877. Ludvig den Tyske var død i 876, og riget blev delt mellem hans svage sønner, Carloman og Louis III. Sønnerne døde kort tid derefter på nær den yngste; Karl den Tykke, som regerede et forenet rige, indtil han blev afsat i 887.

I 880 indgår Ludvig III, † 882, og Carloman, † 884, en overenskomst, hvori den vestfrankiske del af Lorraine overlades Ludvig III.

For at få den rette baggrund for Karl den Store er hans forældre medtaget i slægtstabellen herunder.


GENEALOGIER
s = son of; d = daughter of; gs/gd = grandson/granddaughter of; ggs = greatgrandson of;
m = married to; m(1) = first married to; hd = husband of daughter; † died date; ‡ buried at;

No.   Ruling Names and remarks
Wives and partners are underlined
   

The early Merovingians are listed in the French genealogy.
 


 
Pepin I = Pepin of Landen = Pepin the Elder (France 894) was mayor to Chlotar II.
Pepin I's daughter Begga was Pepin II'smother.

Pepin II = Pepin of Herstel (Fr.898) ruled the Franks 687 to 714 as mayor.
Pepin II's son was Charles Martel;

Karl Martel = Charles Martel (Fr.899), 688-741,
   m(1) Chrotrudis;
   they got:
   a) Pepin the Short and ?
   b) Karloman - religieux de Monte Cassino
     m(1) Gilberga;
     m(2) Svanhilde by whom he got:
       i) Grippon, † 751;
       ii) Hiltrude;
         m Duke Odico of Bavaria and they got Tassilo of Bavaria;
000 Mayor
747-768
King
751-768
Pepin the Short = Pepin III = Pippin der Kurze = Pepin der Kleine = Pepin le Bref
s Charles Martel; * 714; † 24/9 768 in Saint-Denis; ‡ Saint-Denis;
See also (France 901);
De facto ruler from 747, king from 751;
Anointed by archbishop St. Boniface Nov. 751 at Soissons;
Crowned in Rheims by pope Stephen II;

Bertrada = Bertha mit dem grossen Fuss; † 783; d Count Caribert of Le Mans;
children :
1.   Charlemagne (001);
2.   Carloman, † 4/12 771; ruled 9/10 768;
3.   Pepin, † as child;
4.   Gisela, † 810; abbess of Chelles;
001 EMPEROR
0800-0814
Karl den Store - Charlemagne - Charles I of Holy Roman Empire
s(000); * c. 02/04 742, † 28/01 814 at Aachen; ‡ 28/01 814 in the chapel octagon at a still unknown spot;
Canonized 29/12 1165 by Archbishop Rainald von Dassel from Cologne and confirmed by the antipope Paschalis III; See France (902)
King from 9/10 768;
King of Lombardy from June 774;
Emperor from 800. See also under France;

Himiltrude, a Frank, m(1);
child :
  1.   Pepin = Pepin the Hunchback = Pippin (Carloman);
     * 769 or 777; † 810 or 811;
         Received Bavaria; became King of Italy from 781 (Ital. B020);
         Crowned Rome 15/04 781;
         An illegitimate son, Bernard, became King of Italy 813-817; † 818; founded line of Vermandois;

Desideria, a Lombard princess, m(2); d Desiderius, divorced 771;

Hildegard, a Swabian, * 759; m(3) 771; † 783;
children :
  2.   Charles the Younger received France and Saxony, * 772; † 04/12 811;
  3.   Adelheid; * 774; † August 774;
  4.   Rohtrud = Rotrude = Hrotrud, * 772 or 775, † 08/06 810;
     m Count Rorgo of Maine, † ca. 832;
     they got
     a) Louis de Rennes, * ca. 800; † 09/01 867; abbot of St. Denis 840-867;
         the abbot got Louis who later became abbot of Saint-Denis;
  5.   Louis I the Pious (002); * 778, † 840. received Aquitaine;
         survived his brothers and became Frankish Emperor;
  6.   Lothair; * 16/04 778; † 778 or 780;
  7.   Berthe = Bertha, * 779 or 780; † 814/826;
     m Angilbert, later abbot of St. Riquier;
     they got
     a) Nithard the Chronicler; * ca. 800; † 15/05 845;
  8.   Gisela * 781; † ca. 800; nun at Chelles;
  9.   Hildegard * 08/06 782; † June 783.

Fastrada, an East Frankish woman; m(4) 783; † 794.
children :
10.   Theoderada; * ca. 785; † 09/01 844; abbess of Argenteuil;
11.   Hiltrude; * ca. 787; † ca. 800; abbess of Farmoutier - or;
     m Richwin of Padua;

Luitgard = Liutgard, a Swabian; m(5) 795; † 800.
[9673]

Illegitimate children with following;
Madelgarde = Mathalgard;
child :
12.   Rothaid = Rothilde; † 24/03 852; an abbess around 840;

Gersvindis;
children :
13.   Theodoric; † 807;
14.   Adeltrude;
15.-17. One daughters and two sons;

Regina;
children :
18.   Hugo; * 802 or 806; † 14/06 844; abbot of Saint-Quentin, Louis I's chancelor;
19.   Drogo; * 17/06 801; † 08/12 855; bishop of Metz 823-855;
[9830]

Adelinda;
child :
20.   Theodoric = Dietrich; * 806 or 810; became a monk 818; died probably young around 819;
002 EMPEROR
0814-0840
Ludvig I den Fromme - Louis I the Pious - Louis of Aquitaine = Louis le Pieux = Louis le Débonnaire = Ludwig der Fromme = Louis the Fair;
s(001); * August 778; † 20/06 840; See France (903);
King of Aquitania from 15/04 781;
King of the Franks and Italy from 814 to 833 and 834 to 840;
Co-emperor from 813,
Emperor from 28/01 814 after Pepin and Charles have died.
Louis reunited the three parts of the country.

Irmengard of Hesbaye = Ermengarde; * ca. 778; m(1) 798; † 03/10 818;
children :
1.   Lothair (003)
2.   Pepin = Pippin I = Pepin V, † 838;
      King of Aquitania 817-838;
      he got
      a) Pippin II; King of Aquitania 838-848; † post 864;
3.   Rotrude * 800; † ca. 841;
     m Count Rather of Limoges;
4.   Hildegard = Matilde * ca. 802; † 841; an abbess at Laon; and
     m Count Gerard I of Auvergne; * ca. 795; † 25/06 841;
5.   Adelaide * 824; † after 866;
     m Duke Robert of France; * 802; † 866;
6.   Louis I/II the German (005);
7.   Alpais * ca. 794; † 23/07 851 or later;

Judith of Bavaria, * 800; m(2) Feb. 819; † 19/04 843; d count Welf;
children :
  8.   Gisela; * ca. 820; † 01/07 876;
     m 836 Margrave Eberhard of Friuli; * ca. 820; † 16/12 866;
     they got:
      a) Berengarius I; Emperor 915; † 924;
  9.   Charles II the Bald (007); * 16/03 823, † 06/10 877;
10.   Arnulf de Sens * ca. 790; † 817 or later;
003 EMPEROR
0840-0855
Lothair I = Lothar I
s(002); * 795; † 29/09 855;
Emperor from 20/06 840;
Just before he died, he abdicated and became a monk in the Abbey of Prüm, Germany;
King of Bavaria from 814;
King of Lotharingia from 843;
King in Italy from 822, sole ruler from 833-834 and 840-855;
Joint emperor from 817;
Crowned emperor by pope Paschal I in 823;
He was defeated at the battle of Fontenay in 841 because he tried to rule his brothers' territories;
The Verdun Treaty of 843 settled the dispute;

Lothair broke with the father in 829, when Louis I's last son, Charles, got a part of his territory;
He was reinstalled in 830, but again deposed soon afterward;
Revolt by Louis' three sons in 833, and Lothair took over his father's title;
However, he lost it again to the father 834;

Irmengard; * 800; m(1) 15/10 821; † 20/03 851;
children :
1.   Louis II (004);
2.   Ermengarde * 830; † after 849;
     m 846 Count Giselbert II von Maasgau; * 830; † 892;
3.   Lothair II, King of Friesland and Lorraine 855-869; no legitimate children.
      He got
      a) Hugh and;
      b) Bertha;
        m Theobald of Arles,
        they got:
        i) Hugh of Arles, King of Italy 925-947;
        Hugh got Lothaire, King of Italy 947-950;

4.   Charles; * ca. 845; † 24/01 863; King of Provence and Burgundy 855-863;
5.   Hiltrude * 826; † 855 or 866;
     m Berengar of Spoleto;
6.   Berta * ca. 830 ; † 07/05 852 or later;
7.   Gisela * ca. 830; † 19/05 856 or later;
8.   Rotrud * ca. 840;
     m Lambert II of Nantes;

Doda; † after 09/07 855; m(2);
child :
9.   Karloman * ca. 853;

a third marrige - unknown;
004 KING
0840-0875
EMPEROR
0855-0875
Ludvig II = Louis II = Ludwig II;
s(003); * ca. 822; † 12/08 875; near Brescia in Italy;
King of Italy on his father's behalf from 840/844;
Crowned as Longobard king by Pope Gregorius IV 15/06 844, when his father gave him ruling power. He became heir to the empire in 850 and Frankish emperor from 855.
When Lothair I divided the realm Sep. 855, Louis got Italy.
In 859 Louis received territory from Lothair II and when Charles of Provence died 863, he also got a fair part of that territory.
Crowned emperor 06/04 850 and sole emperor from 855.
The male line of Carolingian dynasty became extinct with Louis' death.

Engelberga = Engelburge of Alsace and Spoleto; * 855; † 890;
children :
1.   Gisele * ca. 852; † before 28/04 868;
2.   Ermengarde; * ca. 852; † before 22/06 896;
   m March 876 King or Count Bosco of Provence / Lower Burgundy, 879-887;
     they got
     a) Louis the Blind (012a); † 928;
     b) a daughter who
     m Hugh (Provence P-290);
005 KING EAST
0833-0876
Ludvig II den Tyske - Louis II the German = Ludwig I der Deutsche
s(002); * ca. 804; † 28/08 876;
King of East Francia from 24/09 833 (or 840) to 876;
King of Bavaria from May 826;
German king as Ludwig I.

Emma of Bavaria = Hemma Welf; * ca. 818; m(1) 827; † 31/01 876; d Count Welf;
children :
1.   Carloman of Bavaria = Karlmann von Bayern, (010a), † 884; joint ruler 876-880 with
2.   Louis III the Younger (009), * c.830; † 20/01 882;
3.   Charles III the Fat = Karl III den Tykke, (010); † 887.
4.   Hildegard; * 828; † 23/12 856;
5.   Irmgard † 16/07 866;
6.   Gisela;
   m Erchanger I of Swabia;
7.   Berta; †26/03 877;
006 0855-0869 Lothair II = Lothair II
s(003); * 835; † 08/08 869.
King of Friesland and Lotharingia 29/09 855 - 08/08 869;
after brother Charles had died in 863 Lothair also received areas in Burgundy around Vienne and Lyon.

Theutberga, m ?
no children;
007 EMPEROR
875-877
Karl II den Skaldede - Charles II the Bald = Karl II der Kahle = Charles II le Chauve
s(002); * 15/05 or 13/06 823; † 06/10 877; ‡ St. Denis;
See (France 904);
King of Aquitania from 838;
King of East Lotharingia from 869;
King of Italy from 875 to 876;
King of the West Francia from 20/06 840;
Emperor from 875;
In 870 he shared Lotharingia with Louis the German (005);
Charles the Bald is reckoned the first French king, and known as Charles II in both France and Germany;
Emperor from 25/12 875, crowned in Rome by pope John VIII;
He tried to take advantage of Lorraine when Louis the German died, but was defeated at the battle at Andernach in 876.

Ermentrude; * ca. 825; m(1) 14/12 842; † 06/10 869; d Odo = Count Eudes I of Orléans (Fr. 909);
children :
  1.   Judith; * 843; † after 870;
     m(1) 1/10 856 King Aethelwulf of Wessex;
     m(2) 858 King Æthelbald of West Saxons;
     m(3) 862 Count Baldwin I of Flanders; † 879;
  2.   Louis II of Aquitania (008) under France no. (905).
  3.   Charles of Aquitaine; * 847; † 29/09 865 or 866;
     probably m 862 widow of Count Humbert;
  4.   Carloman; * ca. 849; † 874 or 876; abbot in Soissons;
  5.   Lothar the Lame of West Franks; * 847; † ca. 865;
  6.   Ermentrude; * 854; † after 877;
  7.   Hildegard; * ca. 856;
  8.   Gisele; * ca. 858; † 01/07 874;
  9.   Rotrude; * 852; † before 912; an abbess from 862;

Richildis of Metz = Richardis; m(2) 22/1 870; † ca. 914; d Buwin of Metz;
children :
10.   Drogo; * 872; † 874;
11.   Pippin; * 872; † 874;
12.   Hersent; * 865;
13.   Rothaut; * ca. 870; m Count Hughes of Bourges; * ca. 862; † 892;
14.   Charles; * 10/10 876; † 877;
15.   Rothilde of Neustria; * ca. 871; † 22/3 928;
     m Roger of Maine; † 31/10 900;
008 0855-879
KING WEST
France
Ludvig II Stammeren - Louis II the Stammerer = Ludwig der Stammler = Louis II le Bègue
s(007); * 01/11 846, † 10/04 879; ‡ Notre Dame;
King of East Franconia from 855 to 877;
King of Aquitania from 867;
King of West Francia from Dec. 877 to 879;
King West Lotharingia from 877 to 879;

Engelberge = Ansgarde; m(1) Mar 862; † 879 or 890; repudiated 866; d Count Harduin of Burgundy;
children :
1.   Louis III; (009);
2.   Carloman (Fr. 907);
3.   Hildegarde;
4.   Gisele; † before Nov. 884;

Adelaide; * 850-860; m(2) ca. 868; † ca. 18/10 900; d Count Adalhard of Paris;
children :
5.   Ermentrude; * 870-875;
6.   Charles the Simple; born after father had died; (Fr. 910);
009 0876-0882
KING EAST
0879-0882
Ludvig III den Yngre - Louis III the Younger = Louis III af Saxony = Ludwig III der Jüngere;
s(005); * ca. 830; † 20/01 882 in Lorsch ?? 05/08 882;
See France (906);
King of a part of the East Francia (Saxony & Bavaria) = Ostfranken from 28/08 876 to 882.
Emperor from 879;
He defeated Charles the Bald at Andernach Oct. 876 and incorporated Western Lotharingia in Germany.
In 879 he got Bavaria from his weakling brother Carloman;
The treatises at Verdun 879 and Ribémont 880 on the partition of the realm.

Liutgard; m; of the Liudolfinger dynasty;
no children ;
010 0876-0888
EMPEROR
0881-0887
Karl den Tykke - Charles III the Fat = Karl III der Dicke;
s(005); * 839; † 13/01 888; See (France 908);
King of Allemania or Swabia 28/08 876;
King of Italy Nov. 879;
Emperor from 12/02 881 til Nov. 887 or 880-888;
Sole king of East Francia May 882;
[9830] has: Sole King and Emperor from 884 to he was deposed 887;
Deposed by Arnulf (011) at the Diet of Tribur.

Richardis; m 862; † ca. 900; d Count Erchanger;
child :
1.   Karloman; † 876;
010a Bavaria
876-880
Carloman of Bavaria = Karlmann;
s(005); * before 830; † 22/03 880 or 22-29/09 880;
King of Bavaria, East Franks from 28/08 876;
King of Lombardy, Italy Oct. 877;

Luitxinda = Liutswinde; m(1);
child :
1.   Arnulf (011);

Second marriage;
010b Italy 891-894 Guy of Spoleto = Guido;
King of Italy from 891;
010c Italy 884-898 Lambert of Spoleto;
King of Italy from 892;
011 0887-0899
EMPEROR
0896-0899
Arnulf = Arnulf of Carinthia = Arnolf von Kärnten, Herzog von Bayern
Nephew (010), s of Carloman of Bavaria (010a); * ca. 850; † 08/12 899;
Duke of Carinthia from 876 to 887;
King of Bavaria, East Franks from November 887-899;
King of Italy from 896 to 899;
Emperor from February 896.

Oda of Bavaria = Ota; m;
children :
1.   Louis IV the Child (012);
2.   Glismut; daughter who m (013);

Holenradaout of wedlock:
children :
3.   Zwentibold * August 900; † 13/08 900;
     became King of Lotharingia from May 895;
     m ca. 897 Oda of Paris, d Count Eudes of Paris / or Oda of Saxony??
4.   Hedwige; † 24/09 911;
012 KING EAST
0900-0911
Ludvig IV Barn - Louis IV the Child = Ludwig das Kind;
s(011); * 893; † 24/09 911; he did not claim the title of emperor;
King of East Francia from 04/02 900; he was defeated by the Magyars at Augsburg in 910;
He was put under administration by the Archbishop Hatto of Mainz and died shortly after;
012a 0887-0928
EMPEROR
0901-0905
Ludvig den Blinde = Louis the Blind;
s Count Boson V of Bourges and Ermengarde of Italy (004-2); * ca. 880; † 28/06 928;
King of Provence from 887 to 928;
King of Italy from 900 to 905;
Emperor from 901 to 905;
Blinded 21/07 905 for breaking oaths on staying away from Italy;

Anna; * ca. 890; m(1) 905; † 912; d Byzantine emperor Leo VI & Zoe Zaoutzaina;
child :
1.   Charles Constantine, Count of Vienne; * 905; † ca. 942 or 963;

Adelaide of Bourgogne; * 914; m(2) 914; † 10/05 943; d Rudolph I of Upper Burgundy;
child :
2.   Guilfred de Briancon; * 918; † 970;
012b EMPEROR
0915-0924
Berengar = Berengarius;
s Eberhard of Friuli and Gisela, d Louis I and Judith (002; * 845; † 07/04 924;
Margrave of Friuli from 874 to ca. 896; inherited after brother Unruoch II died 874;
King of Italy from 887, as Berengar I;
Emperor from 915;
Crowned December 915 in Rome by Pope John X;
After Berengar, the imperial throne was vacant until Otto I was crowned in 962;

Bertilla; † before 915, poisoned; d Suppo II;
children :
1.   Bertha, abbess of San Salvatore in Brescia;
2.   Gisela; † before 913;
     m 898 or 910 Marquess Adalbert Ivrea; they got:
     a) Berengar II, King of Italy 950-961;

Anna; m(2) 915; d Louis of Provence ?
013 0911-0918 Konrad I af Franken = Conrad I of Franconia = Konrad I = Conrad the Younger; = Konrad von Lahngau;
s Duke Conrad of the Franconia + Glismut of Arnulf (011); * 890c;
Konrad did never claim the title of Emperor;
Elected king 10/11 911 at Forchheim; † 23/12 918;

Kunigunde, of the Alaholfings of Swabia;
children :
1.   Kunigunde of Germany; * 913;
2.   Hermann, Duke of Franconia; * 913;

Of (002)'s line and the last of the Carolingians.
Brother Eberhard III of Franconia was leader of the Franconian and Saxon noblemen, when the king following Conrad was to be elected at the diet in Fritzlar in 919, and on Conrad's advise, which he gave just before he died, they elected Henry the Fowler (014).

 
Efter den karolingiske periode
Efter det karolingiske dynasti omfattede det tyske område ved år 900 stort set det nuværende Tyskland, Holland og Schweiz, men østgrænsen var endnu ikke trukket så langt mod øst som i dag. Østrig strakte sig ikke helt til Wien. Folkeslagene var delt i fire hovedgrupper: sakserne, bayerne, frankerne og svaberne med en mindre portion thüringer. Mod vest var der to mindre folkegrupper i hhv. øvre og nedre Lotharingia = Lorraine.

De saksiske fyrster
Den næste linje, der regerede riget, blev af Arnulfs slægt (006) og kaldt de saksiske regenter. Stammen kaldtes på tysk for der Liudolfingischen Dynastie. Se under Sachsen om de saksiske fyrster.

Slægtens første fyrste var Henrik I Fuglefænger (014), der det meste af sin regeringstid måtte kæmpe mod oprør fra hertugerne af Bayern og Schwaben, og først under sønnen Otto I var slægtens magtbase sikret, og området blev i en periode Europas stærkeste.

Henrik I af Tyskland fik ved tronbestigelsen i 919 magten over de to hertugdømmer Sachsen og Franken, mens de to andre betydende hertugdømmer, Bayern og Schwaben ikke ville acceptere Henrik som konge. Hertug Burchard af Schwaben blev senere på året tvunget til at anerkende Henrik, men samtidig valgte hertugen af Bayern og nogle adelsslægter fra det østlige Franken hertug Arnulf af Bayern som deres konge, eller rettere antikonge. I 921 blev Arnulf over for Henriks militærmagt tvunget til at anerkende ham som konge over hele Tyskland.

Den vestfrankiske del var dog på vej til at glide ud af kejserriget, og styret koncentrerede sig reelt mere om at udvide sit territorium mod øst, hvor magyarerne i det meste af perioden truede med indfald. I 928 tvang Henrik dog kong Giselbert af Lorraine til også at anerkende sig som konge, og derved kom denne vestligste del af Tyskland, Lothringen und Rheinland, tilbage til riget. Giselbert blev yderligere pacificeret gennem giftemål med Henriks datter Gerbera i 928.

Henriks sidste militære udfald var mod nord, hvor han kæmpede mod vikingerne fra Danmark, der hærgede ind i Tyskland. Henrik annekterede Slesvig.

Henrik I blev den første konge over området kaldet Tyskland, som af sin efterfølger også fik navnet Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation = Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation. Grundlæggelsesdatoen regnes under dette navn gerne fra Otto I's (015) kroning 02/02 962. Henrik er også omtalt under Quedlinburg.

Ottos magtcentrum lå omkring Harzen, og han grundlagde i Magdeburg en slags hovedstad - selv om fyrsterne endnu rejste omkring med hoffet over hele riget, så regeringen foregik fra skiftende opholdssteder. Om en centraladministration var der endnu ikke tale.

Den største »centralmagt« lå hos kirken, og Otto belønnede kirken med skatte- og afgiftsfritagelse og gav dem egen jurisdiktion. Det skete i 951.
[9690 p.35ff]

De to historieskrivere fra perioden er Widukind fra Corvey og Thietmar fra Merseburg.

Stilmæssigt betegnes stilen fra 920/930 til 1000 som ottonsk;
Stilen fra 1000 til 1050 betegnes som sen-ottonsk og;
Stilen fra 1050 til 1080 kaldes tidlig-salisk. Alle disse periodeårstal er omtrentlige.
Ottonernes karakteristiske nyhed var kirkernes tværskibe, der bliver større og mere markante end tidligere. Mere om arkitektur her.
[9812 p.21+25ff]

No. Ruling Names and remarks
014 0919-0936 Henrik I Fuglefænger = Henry I the Fowler = Heinrich der Vogler = Heinrich der Finkler;
* 875-876, † 02/07 936 at Memleben, ‡ Quedlinburg, Abbey of Quedlinburg.
s of Duke Otto the Illustrious = Otto der Erlauchte, † 912, and Hedwiga, a ggd Charlemagne (001).
Duke of Saxony from 912;
German King from 12/05 919;

Hatheburg; m(1) 906; divorced 909; d Count Erwin, Saxony;
children :
1.   Thankmar * 909, killed in battle against Otto I † 936/938;

Matilda of Ringelheim, * ca. 895; m(2) 910; † 968; ‡ Quedlinburg;
   d Count Dietrich, Westfalia and a direct descendant of Widukind (See Oldenburg A900);
children :
2.   Otto (015); * 912;
3.   Henry I of Bavaria; * ca. 920; Duke of Bavaria from 948-955; † 955;
     m Judith of Bavaria; * ca. 925; † 987;
     they got:
     a) Heinrich der Zänker; * ca. 951; † 995;
        m Gisela of Burgund, 952-1007;
        they got:
         i) Heinrich II (018);
         their s, Brun, 977-1029, became bishop of Augsburg from 1006-1029;
         their d, Gisela, 985-1060,
         m Stephan, King of Hungary.

4.   Brun = Bruno I; * ca. 925; Archbishop of Cologne = Kölln and duke and vice-regent of Lorraine from 953, † 965;
5.   Gerberga of Saxony; * ca. 913; † c.968;
      m(1) Duke Giselbert of Lorraine, † 939;
      m(2) King Louis IV of France;
6.   Hedwige = Hadwig of Saxony; * ca. 922;
      m Duke Hugh the Great of France (Franzien); † ca. 956/958;
      they got:
      a) Hugh Capet.

Henry I became king when Conrad I (013) died, 23/12 918. He was elected in May 919 at Fritzlar.
Henry opposed a church crowning and supported his power on the secular vassals.
He is the first ruler who issued documents naming the area Germany = Regnum Teutonicorum.
Henry never took the title emperor, but preferred the title Primus inter Pares.
In 929 he secured the dynasty by appointing his eldest son as the following king.
015 EMPEROR
0936-0973
Otto I den Store = Otto I the Great = Otto I der Grosse;
s(014); * 23/11 912; † 07/05 973 at Memleben; ‡ Magdeburg Dom;
Duke of Saxony 936-961;
Enthroned as king in Aachen by all five duchies 07/08 or 08/08 936;
King of Lombardy, Italy 23/09 951;
Crowned as emperor in Rome the 02/02 962;

Edith = Edgitha, m(1) i 930; † 946; ‡ Magdeburg;
d Edward the Elder of England (ruled 899-925) and halfsister to Athelstand (925-939);
Editha rebuilt Magdeburg and was ‡ Magdeburg.
children :
1.   Liudolf of Swabia; * 930; Duke from 950; † 957;
     m Ida of Swabia;
2.   Liudgard; * c.931; † 853;
     m Duke Conrad of Lorraine;

Adelheid of Burgundy, m(2); widow after an Italian king; d King Rudolph II
children :
3.   Otto; (016); Duke of Carinthia;
4.   Mathilde; * c.955; † 999; abbess at Quedlinburg from 966;

illegitimate child with a Slav noble woman:
5.   William; * 929; † 968; becomes archbishop of Mainz, 954-968;

By the enthronement in 936 the
Archbishop Heriger of Mainz was followed by Frederick;
Duke of Lorraine was Gilbert;
Duke of Franconia was Eberhard;
Duke of Swabia was Hermann;
Duke of Bavaria was Arnulf.

From Otto I the imperial crown was tied to the papal coronation and the kingship of Germany.
955 - Otto I won the battle the 10/08 at Lechfeld bei Augsburg over Hungary;
955 - Otto founded the archbishopric at Magdeburg;
016
EMPEROR
0973-0983
Otto II;
s(015); * 955; † 07/12 983 in Rome; ‡ St. Peter's Church, Rome;
King of Germany from 26/05 961, crowned at Aachen - co-ruler with his father;
Crowned as emperor 25/12 967 in Rome - co-ruler with his father;
Sole ruler from 07/05 973;

Theophano = Theophanu; * 959; m 14/04 972; † 991; ‡ St Pantaleon, Kölln;
A niece of the Byzantine emperor John Tzimisces, 969-976;
children :
1.   Otto (017);
2.   Adelheid; * 977; † 140/1 1043; Abbess in Gernrode after Hathui;

The empire became »Roman« during Otto II (and »Holy« in the 12th cent.)
017
EMPEROR
0983-1002
Otto III
s(016); * 980; † 23/01 or 24/01 1002 in Italy; ‡ Aachen.
Died unmarried; had woed a Byzantine princess.
King of Germany from 25/12 983;
King of Italy, Lombardy, from 996.
Crowned emperor in Rome 21/05 996 by pope Gregory V, Otto's cousin Bruno of Carinthia † 999.
He called himself Romanorum Imperator Augustus;

Otto was as a minor warded by his mother, Theophano, to 991 and by his grandmother, Adelheid, to 994, but also archbishop Willigis of Mainz and Bishop Hildibald of Worms were advisers.
018 EMPEROR
1002-1024
Henrik II af Bayern = Henry II of Bavaria = Saint Henry of Germany = Heinrich von Bayern
* 06/05 972; † 13/07 1024 i Grone; ‡ Bamberger Dom;
s Duke Henry II the Quarrelsome of Bavaria = Heinrich der Zänker, c.920-955, and Gisela of Burgundy, c.952-1007.
Ggs (014). Uncle to (017). Last male heir in the line of Henry I.

He was:
Duke Henry IV of Bavaria from 995 to 1005;
German king from 07/06 1002;
King of Lombardy, Italy from 15/05 1004;
Emperor from 14/02 1014;
Crowned by pope Benedict VIII 14/02 1014; lame from 1021;
Canonized 1146 by pope Eugene III. Saint's Day 13/07 or 15/07.

Kunigunde = Cunegunda; * 975; m c.998; † 03/03 1033; ‡ Bamberg; canonized 1200. Saint's day 03/03.
no children ;
[9812 p.14,2]

 
Den frankisk, saliske slægt
Herefter overgik regentrollen til den salisk-frankiske slægt, der nedstammede fra Konrad I (008), men også har aner fra Ottonske slægt på kvindesiden.

Tyskland
Områdefordelingen i denne periode var i store træk således:
Tysklands område fra den danske grænse og sydpå hed Sachsen, og det gik til Hersfeld - Harzen; derefter kom Franken = Franconia til en linje på højde med Strassbourg. Syd derfor lå Svabien, der på Alpehøjderyggen grænsede til Italiens kongerige Lombardiet.

Østen herfor lå fra nord Pommern = Pomerania - til en linje ca. ved Magdeburg; Lusatien og Meissen dækkede indtil Böhmen, og sønden herfor kom Bayern, der mod syd rakte til Alpehøjderyggen og grænsede mod Italien ved områderne Verona og Friuli.

Vesten for Tyskland hed områderne fra nord Nedre og Øvre Lotringen samt Burgund. Vesten herfor lå Det Vestfrankiske Rige, hvor den sydlige del stadig kaldes Aquitanien. Bretagne og Normandiet mod Kanalegnene var ikke helt indgået i Frankrig endnu, men var selvstændige hertugdømmer.

No. Ruling Names and remarks
019 EMPEROR
1024-1039
Konrad II = Conrad II of Franconia
Great-great grandson (015); * 990; † 04/06 1039; s of Count Henry of Speyer;
German king 1024-1039, crowned in Mainz 08/09 1024;
Crowned in 1026 in Milan as king of Italy.
Crowned by pope John XIX as emperor in Rome at Easter 26/03 1027, Knud den Store was present;
King of Burgundy from 1032 or 02/02 1033 when Rudolf III died; crowned at Payerne = Peterling;

Gisela of Swabia, m 1016; widowed Duchess of Swabia and of the Charlemagne line;
child :
1.   Henry (020);
020 EMPEROR
1039-1056 or
1046-1056
Henrik III = Henry III = Heinrich III
s(019); * 28/10 1017; † 05/10 1056;
Duke of Bavaria as Henry VI 1027-1041;
Duke of Swabia as Henry I 1038-1045;
German king from 04/06 1039; ordinated 14/04 1028;
Emperor 25/01 1046 to 1056;

Gunhilde = Kunigunde; m(1) 1036; † 1038; d Knud den Store
no children ;

Agnes of Guienne; m(2) 1043; d William V of Aquitania and Poitou;
children :
1.   Henry (021) * 1050;
2.   Conrad;
3.   Mathilde;
4.   Beatrix;
5.   Daughter;
   m king Salomon of Hungary;

1046 Synod at Sutri - two popes deposed and Bishop Suidger of Bamberg appointed pope as Clement II;
Clement II crowned Emperor Henry III.
021 EMPEROR
1056/ 1084-1106
Henrik IV = Henry IV = Heinrich IV;
s(020); * 11/11 1050; † 07/08 1106; ‡ Speyer Cathedral 1111;
Duke of Bavaria as Henry VIII 1055-1061;
German king, elected 17/07 1053 / 1054, ordinated + crowned 1054 in Aachen:
Ruled from 05/10 1056 after father's death; mother regent during infancy;
Emperor from 31/03 1084; abdicated 31/12 1105 after pressure from Heinrich V;
Crowned 31/03 1084 by pope Clement III in St. Peter, Rome;

Bertha of Savoy = Bertha of Turin, m(1), † 1087; d margrave of Turin;
children :
1.   Henry, (022), elected king 1098;
2.   Conrad of Franconia (021c); * 12/02 1074; † 27/07 1101;
     Duke of Lorraine (Lower) 1076-1089;
     Crowned king of Germany 30/05 1087, ruled from 1093;
     Crowned anti-king of Italy 1093-1101;
     m Constance, d Roger I of Sicily;
3.   Agnes (021d); unsure if the mother was Bertha or Praxedis.
     m Count Frederick of Büren, grandfather to (025).

Praxedis of Kiev, m(2) 1089, divorced 1093; adulterous according to [9495 p.61]; d Grand Prince Vsevolod of Kiev;

24/01 1076 Synod at Worms, where Henry IV declared pope Gregory VII deposed;
22/02 1076 Pope Gregory VII declared Henry IV deposed;
Jan/Feb 1077 the emperor's penance at Canossa;
1077 Duke Rudolf of Swabia elected anti-king; a second anti-king, Hermann of Salm, got no support;
In March 1084 Henry IV conquered Rome, pope Gregory VII escaped to Salerno where he died 25/05 1085;
1085 Guibert = Wibert of Ravenna appointed pope, anti-pope, as Clement III, who crowned Henry IV;
1095 First Crusade proclaimed at the Council at Clermont;
1105 Henry IV escaped to Cologne during an uprising led by Henry V, but was later imprisoned by his son in Mainz and forced to abdicate 31/12 1105.
Henry IV fled to Liège and defeated with the help of the Lorraine forces Henry V 22/03 1106 near Visé.
021a 1077-1080 Rudolf von Schwaben;
† 15 or 16/10 1080;
King of Germany 15/3 1077; rival to Henry IV;
021b 1081-1088 Hermann von Luxembourg = Herman of Sam;
King of Germany 26/12 1081. Deposed 1088; rival to Herny IV;
021c 1093-1101 Conrad of Franconia
* 12/02 1074; † 27/07 1101;
Duke of Lower Lorraine 1076-1089;
Crowned king of Germany 30/05 1087, ruling from 1093; rival to Herny IV;
Crowned anti-king of Italy 1093-1101;
021d - Agnes von Büren = Agnes von Österreich = Agnes von Waiblingen
* 1070c;

Friedrich I von Staufen, Herzog von Schwaben; m(1) 1079; † 1105;
children :
  1.   Konrad III; (024); King 1138-1152;
  2.   Friedrich II von Schwabien; † 1147;

Leopold III der Heilige, Margrave von Österreich; * 1073; m(2); † 1136;
children :
  3.   Adalbert; † 1137;
   m Hedvig, d Hungarian King Bela II;
  4.   Leopold IV von Österreich; † 1141; became margrave after father died; got the fief Bavaria;
  5.   Heinrich II Jasomirgott; *1086; † 1177; became margrave after brother died in 1114 and received also the Bavarian fief; 17/09 1156 lost Bavria and got Austria which was elevated to a duchy;
  6.   Otto of Freising; provost in Klosterneuburg by Vienna, later abbot in Morimond Monastery; bishop of Freising 1138;
Wrote Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa's Chronicle;
  7.   Konrad; became bishop of Passau, later archbishop of Salzburg;
  8.   Agnes;
   m Duke Vladislav of Poland;
  9.   Gertrud;
   m Duke Vladislav II of Bohemia;
10.   Iulitta = Ita;
   m Margrave William VI of Montferrat;
11.   Marie;
   m Emperor Manuel I Komnenus who died 1180;
022 EMPEROR
1111-1125
Henrik V = Henry V
s(021); * 11/08 1086; † 23/05 1125; ‡ Speyer Cathedral;
King of Germany, elected 10/05 1098; ruled from 05/01 1099, crowned 06/01 1099 by Archbishop Hermann III;
Emperor 13/04 1111;
Crowned 13/04 1111 by pope Paschal II in St Peter's in Rome;

Matilda, * 1102; betrothed 1110, m 07/01 1114, † 1164; d Henry I of England; returned to England after husband died;
no children ;

Heinrich V inherited Tuscany territories after Duchess Mathilda who had died 1116;
The emperor made the Worms Concordate over the Investiture Controversy on 23/09 1122. Opponent was Pope Calixtus II.
023 EMPEROR
1125-1137
Lothair III af Sachsen;
* June 1075; † 03/12 or 04/12 1137; ‡ Königslutter Cathedral; s Count Gebhard of Supplinburg
Duke Lothair II von Süpplingenburg;
Duke of Saxony from 1106;
King of Germany from 13/09 1125;
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 04/06 1133 to 1137;
Crowned emperor by pope Innocent II in Rome;

The numbering of Lothairs are depending on the inclusion of the several Lothars: if Lothair I, ruled 843-855, and Lothair II, ruled 855-869, both count Lothar-(023) is number III. However, some do not count Lothair II because he was only king of Lotharingia and never emperor of Germany - then (023) is Lothair II.

Lothair defeated Emperor Heinrich V's forces in the Battle of Welfesholz in 1115.

Richeza of Northeim;
child :
1.   Gertrude; * 18/04 1115; † 18/04 1143;
   m 29/05 1127 Heinrich II der Stolze = Henry II the Proud = Duke Henry X of Saxony and Bavaria. † 1139;
   they got:
   a) Henry the Lion.
After Henry's death in 1139, Gertrud m(2) 01/05 1142 Margrave Henry II of Austria; † 1177;

From Pope Innocent II Lothair received the Tuscan territory originally belonging to Countess Matilda. In 1135 the Pope also invited the Emperor to invade the south Italian Norman kingdom ruled by Roger of Sicily.

Lothair had given his son-in-law, Henry the Proud, the imperial insignia, but he was passed over by the princes of the electorate.

Lothair installed the dynasties of Schauenburg in Holstein in 1110, the Ballenstedts in the marches later named Brandenburg 1134 and the Wettins in the marches of Meissen in 1123 and in Lusatia in 1136.
[9972-4a p.408]

 
Henrik Løve = Henry the Lion
Henrik Løves bedstefader var Heinrich VIII der Schwarze af Bayern, † 1126, gift med Wulfhill, ældste datter af hertug Magnus Billung af Sachsen.

Henrik Løves fader var Heinrich X der Stolze af Bayern, 1108-1139, gift med Gertrude d af den sachsiske hertug Lothair von Supplingenburg, 1075-1137. Herigennem arvede Henrik Løve hertugdømmet Sachsen.

Henrik Løve, * 1129, † 6/8 1195;
m(1) 1148 Clementia, d Hertug Conrad af Zähringen, m(1) opløst 1162.
m(2) 1168 Matilda, d engelske kong Henry II.

Med sin første ægtefælle fik Henrik børnene:
  1.   Henrik, der døde spæd;
  2.   Richenza, * 1157; † 1167
  3.   Gertrud;
   m(1) Hertug Frederick IV af Svabien;
   m(2) Kong Knud i Danmark.

I sit andet ægteskab fik Henrik børnene:
  4.   Richenza = Matilda; * 1172; † 1204;
   m(1) Grev Godfrey af Perche;
   m(2) Havde et andet ægteskab senere;
  5.   Heinrich Rigsgreve af Palatinatet Rhinen; * 1173; † 1227;
   m Agnes von Staufen;
  6.   Lothair = Lothar af Bayern; * 1174; † 1190;
  7.   Otto, den senere kejser Otto IV (028);
  8.   Wilhelm af Winchester; * 1184; † 1213;
   hvis ældste søn, Otto, blev første hertug af Braunschweig og Lüneburg.

Desuden fik han med uvis kilde i andet ægteskab:
  9.   Eleanor, * 1178; døde spæd;
10.   Ingibiorg, * 1180; døde spæd;
11.   En søn, * 1182; † 1182;

Med en elskerinde, Ida af Bileskastel, fik han:
12.   Mechtilde = Matilda; der giftede sig med Henrik Borwin af Venden, † 1228, der grundlagde det Mecklenburgske dynasti.

I 1143 erobrede Henrik Løve området Polaben ved at besejre grev Heinrich von Badewide.

Ved Rigsdagen i Goslar 1154 gav kejser Friedrich Barbarossa Henrik retten til at udnævne biskopperne i Oldenburg, Mecklenburg og Ratzeburg. Henrik udnævnte Evermod, † 1178, til den første biskop i Ratzeburg. Evermod var Præmonstratenser fra Vor Frues kloster i Magdeburg.

Henrik blev hertug af Bayern fra 1156 som Henrik XII. Samtidig blev den østrigske del skilt ud af Bayern. År 1157 grundlagde Henrik München. Henrik mistede Det Bayerske Hertugdømme i 1180.

Henrik erobrede Lübeck fra grev Adolf II af Holstein og rekonstruerede 1159 Lübeck for senere, 1160, at overføre bispetronen fra Oldenburg til Lübeck. Samtidig fik han gennem aftaler med fyrster og handelsstormænd rundt Østersøen skabt grundlaget for Hansestaden Lübecks udvikling. Senere udnævnte han Braunschweig til sit regeringssæde.

I 1160 gjorde Henrik Schwerin til Mecklenburgs biskopsæde. Efter Valdemar I havde erobret Rügen, var der kampe mellem Danmark og Mecklenburg. Freden blev oprettet igen i 1171, da Valdemars søn, Knud IV (VI), blev gift med Henriks datter, Gertrud.

Henrik tog i 1172 på pilgrimstur til Det Hellige Land og besøgte undervejs den byzantinske kejser, Manuel I Komnenus. Efter tilbagekomsten gik venskabet med den byzantinske kejser over styr, og Henrik mistede sin magt. I 1180 blev hans sachsiske hertugdømme delt, så de to bispestifter Kölln og Paderborn dannede et nyt hertugdømme kaldet Westphalia, som kom under köllnerærkebiskoppen, mens Sachsens østlige del dannede et len, som en søn af Brandenburghertugen fik. Hertugdømmet Bayern gik til Otto von Wittelsbach, og biskoppen i Würzburg fik et hertugdømme i det østlige Franken.
 


Interregnum i perioden 1137 til 1138.

Slægten Hohenstaufen
Slægtens stamtræ begynder med Henrik IV (021).

Ved slægtens indledende magtkampe mod pavestyret og andre opponenter foregik der også udskiftning af nogle områdefyrster. Blandt andet blev Holsten givet til Adolf af Schauenburg. Brandenburg Mark var samlet af Albert der Bär, der også fik Nordmark. Meissen og Lusatien blev givet til Conrad af Wettin. Til sammen indgik områderne i de konstellationer, der kom til at danne det fremtidige Preussen.

Senere, efter freden i Venedig i 1177, blev der igen rokeret internt. Sachsen blev opdelt, og Bayern formindsket ved at Tyrol blev udskilt, og der etableredes et hertugdømme Steiermark. Bayern gik til Otto af Wittelsbach. Henry Løve, der først havde samlet områderne, som faderen havde mistet, tabte dem igen, men beholdt efter nogle oprørsforsøg Braunschweig og Lüneburg, men endte med at være i komplet unåde hos kejser Frederik.

Fredrik II havde en ussel barndom, men fik en god uddannelse ved det sicilianske hof, der på det tidspunkt var et af de bedst udviklede lærdomscentre i Europa. Hans chancer for at blive kejser var ikke store, da Otto IV var ved magten i Nordeuropa, men da han blev afsat af Welfer-prinserne, så blev Frederik, da han var atten år, kejser i 1212, og senere efter paveskiftet til Honorius III i 1216 blev Frederik 22/11 1220 kronet i Rom. Betalingen herfor var et løfte fra kejseren om at tage på korstog. Dette forberedte han sig på i de næste par år.

No. Living
Ruling
Names and remarks
024 EMPEROR
1138-1152
Konrad III = Konrad III af Franken = Conrad III of Hohenstaufen;
* 1093; s Frederick I, Duke of Swabia and Agnes von Waiblingen, d Heinrich IV; grandson via d of (021); † 15/02 1152 of malaria; ‡ Bamberg Cathedral;
First Hohenstaufen emperor.
Duke of Franconia from 1115/1116 - 1120;
German regent with brother Duke Frederick II of Swabia from 1116;
Elected anti-king from 18/12 1127, abdicated 1135;
Elected King 07/03 1138 and re-established as king 13/03 1138 to 1152.
King of Italy from 22/06 1128 to 1135 and 1138 to 1152;
Crowned 29/06 1128 at Monza;
King of Burgundy 1138 to 1152;
Emperor from 07/03 1138;
Joined the second crusade in 1147. Had to hurry back to Germany and he did never get the imperial crown in Rome.

Gertrud; * 1130; m(1) 1114 / 1115; d Count Heinrich von Rothenburg-Comburg;
no children;

Gertrud von Sulzbach; * 1146; m(2) between 1131 and 1134; † 14/04 1146 in Hersfeld;
     d Berengar I and Adelheid von Wolfratshausen;
children :
1.   Frederick IV of Rothenburg, Herzog von Schwaben; † 1167;
   m 1166 Gertrud von Sachsen, d Henry the Lion; no children.
2.   Heinrich-Berengar; crowned 30/11 1147 in Aachen as co-king; † 1152;
025 1152-1190 or
1155-1190
Frederik I Barbarossa = Frederick I Barbarossa;
* 1122 or 1123; † 10/06 1190;
A Hohenstaufen descendant;
Son of Frederick of Swabia, † 1147, and Judith of Bavaria, who was d Henry the Black of Welf kin;
nephew to (024).
His grandfather, count Frederick of Büren, was m to Agnes, d Henry IV.
Duke of Swabia from 1147 to 1152, as Frederick III;
King of Germany, elected 4/3 1152, crowned 9/3 1152 at Aachen;
King of Italy 17/04 1155 to 1186;
Emperor 18/06 1155 crowned in Rome by pope Hadrian IV;
King of Burgundy 30/07 1178;
1188 during the Diet of Mainz, Frederick decided to go on Crusade. 11/5 1189 he began the tour. 10/6 1190 he drowned while crossing the Saleph river. His horse threw him off and the cold water gave him a heart attack and his armour kept him down, and he drowned in shallow hip-deep water. The crusade afterwards collapsed;
The emperor was buried somewhat peculiar. His son, Frederick VI of Swabia, tried to conserve the emperor's body in vinegar. However, it didn't work and the imperial flesh was interred in St. Peter's in Antiochia, the skeleton parts in Tyre Cathedral, and his heart and organs in Tarsus.

Adelheid = Adela of Vohburg m(1); divorced as adulterous;

Beatrice of Upper Burgundy = Beatrix von Burgund; m(2) 1156; d Renaud III;
children :
  1.   Frederick V of Swabia; Herzog von Schwaben = Duke of Swabia; * 16/7 1164; † 28/11 1168/1170;
  2.   Henry; (026); * 1165;
  3.   Daughter; * Nov. 1168; † Dec. 1184;
  4.   Frederick V / VI, Duke of Swabia; * 1167, † 1191; born as Konrad;
  5.   Otto I / II, Count of Burgundy; * 1170; † killed 1200;
     m Margareta of Blois & Burgundy; † 1230;
  6.   Conrad II, Duke of Swabia and Rothenburg, * 1173; † killed 1196;
     m 1188 Queen Berenguela of Castile; * 1180; † 1246;
  7.   Philip of Swabia (027); * 1177; † killed 1208;
  8.   Beatrice of Hohenstaufen; * 1162; † 1174;
   betrothed to William II of Sicily but died before m;
  9.   Agnes of Hohenstaufen; † 8/10 1184;
   betrothed to Emeric of Hungary but died before m.
10.   Wilhelm; * July 1176; † 1176; ‡ Lorch;
11.   Rainald; * Nov. 1173; † 1174; ‡ Lorch;

1165 Frederick got the anti-pope Paschal III summoned in Aachen and at Christmas time had Charlemagne canonized.

Frederick formed alliance with his cousin, the Welf Henry the Lion, who in return received the duchies of Saxony and Bavaria.
The duchy of Austria was recently separated from Bavaria, and was given to Margrave Henry Jasomirgott of Austria, the line becoming extinct in 1246.

In 1273 the duchy was held by Philip of Swabia's grandson, Ottokar II, 1253-1278, m to the widow of the Babenberg kin, from the succession of which he gained Styria = Steiermark, Carinthia = Kärnten, Carniola = Krain (W part of Slovenia), Istria, Aquileia and Pordenone - the three last are areas and cities in northeast Italy.
Ottokar II also founded Königsberg.
King Ottokar was killed in the battle of Marchfeld near Wien on 26/8 1278.

The Peace of Venice 1177 in which the pope recognized the emperor as head of the imperial church, and Frederick recognized the pope's sovereignty in the Papal State.
Peace of Constance 1183 the Lombard states, cities and areas got their own election of magistrates.
[9768 p.33]

Frederik's chronicle was written by Otto of Freising. His father was Margrave Leopold III of Austria † 1136; His mother was Agnes, daughter of Emperor Henry IV † 1106; Otto was born in her second marriage. In her first marriage to Count Frederik of Büren came two sons: Duke Frederik II of Swabia, † 1147; and the later King Konrad III, 1138-1152; Her first husband died 1105 and she returned to her brother Henry IV and was part of a deal with Austria in 1105;

Otto got many brothers and sisters; seven reached adulthood:
   Adalbert;
   m Hedvig d King Bela II of Hungary;
   Leopold IV, Margrave Austria, Duke of Bavaria;
   Henry II Jasomirgott, Duke from 1141 of Austria and Bavaria;
   Otto;
   Konrad, bishop of Pasau, Archbishop of Salzburg;
   Agnes;
   m Duke Vladislaw of Poland;
   Gertrud;
   m Duke Vladislav II of Bohemia;
   Ita = Iulitta;
   m Margrave William VI of Montferrat;

Otto was halfbrother to Emperor Konrad III (024);
026 1190-1197
or
1191-1197
Henrik VI = Henry VI = Heinrich VI
s(025); * 1165 in Nymwegen; † 28/09 1197 at Messina; ‡ Palermo Cathedral;
King elected 14/08 or 15/08 1169; co-ruler from 1186; sole ruler from 10/06 1190;
Emperor 14/04 1191;
Crowned emperor by pope Celestine III;
King of Sicily 25/12 1194 as Henry I;
Crowned 25/12 1194 in Palermo;

Constance of Sicily = Konstanze, * 1154; m 28/01 1185; † 27/11 1198;
Heiress to the Two Sicilies; d Roger II of Sicily, 1130-1154.
Crowned empress with her husband in 1191.
Crowned empress together with her son in 1198 by pope Innocent III.
child :
1.   Friedrich II (029), * 1194. Elected emperor before father died.

Henry organized the first fleet of the empire for the Crusade in 1195 after he had taken the cross at the diet at Bari.
Empress Constance were appointed regent of the Two Sicilies.
027 1198-1208 Filip af Schwaben = Philip of Swabia, King of the Romans = Philipp von Schwaben;
s(025); * 1177c.; † 21/06 1208; a Hohenstaufen;
King and emperor 08/03 1198; crowned 05/09 1198;
Took the crown after his brother, but was not elected.
Assassinated in Bamberg by Otto von Wittelsbach.

Irene Angelina = Eirene = Marie of Byzantium; * 1181; m 25/05 1197, her m(2); † 1208;
d Byzantine emperor Isaac Angelus II.
Her m(1) was to Roger † 24/12 1193; s of Tancred of Lecce;
children :
1.   Beatrice; * 1198; † 1212;
   m Emperor Otto IV = Otto of Brunswick;
2.   Cunigunde; * 1200; † 1248;
   m King Wenceslas III of Bohemia (Boh. 380);
     they got:
     a) King Ottokar II of Bohemia (Boh. 390);
3.   Elizabeth = Beatrice the Younger;
   m 1219 King Ferdinand III of Castile (Sp. 011), 1217-1252;
     they got:
     a) King Alfonso X of Castile (Sp. 012);
4.   Mary of Hohenstaufen; * 1201; † 1235;
   m Duke Henry II of Brabant;
028 1198-1218 Otto IV Welf = Otto IV of Saxony = Otto von Welfen
ggs(023); 7th son of Henry the Lion, nephew of Richard Coeur de Lion. * between 1176 and 1182; † 19/05 1218;
King 09/06 1198; or 11/11 1208 after new election;
Emperor 04/10 1209; elected king by the opposition to Philip of Swabia.
The two kings, (027) + (028), were fighting in civil wars from 1198 to 1208.

Marie of Brabant; * ca. 1190; m after 19/05 1214; † after 09/03 1260; d Duke Henry I of Brabant;
029 1212-1250
EMPEROR
1220-1250
Friederich II = Frederick I of Sicily;
s(026); * 26/12 1194, † 13/12 1250 at Fiorentino, Apulia.
Called Stupor Mundi and member of the Cistercian Order. He died in that order's habit;
King of Sicily 17/05 1198 to 1250;
King of Germany elected 1196, ruled as anti-king from 09/12 1212 and again from 23/07 1215;
King of Sicily from 1198;
Emperor 22/11 1220;
Crowned 1220;
On the crusade, Friedrich became King of Jerusalem 09/11 1225 and crowned himself 18/03 1229.

Friedrich was married four times and had numerous legitimate and illegitimate children, totalling 19.

Constanza of Aragon, * 1179; † m(1) 15/08 1209; 23/06 1222 in Catania; d Alfonso II, King of Aragon, Queen dowager of king Emmerich of Hungary;
Regent in Sicily;
child :
1.   Heinrich, * 1211; of Sicily; joined a Lombard revolt 1235 and died in his father's prison in 12/02 1242.
He was King of Sicily from 1212;
Duke of Swabia from 1216;
King of Germany from 1220 as Henry (VII) (co-king of Emperor Frederick II);
His number (VII) to avoid confusion with Emperor Henry VII;
   Heinrich (VII) m 29/11 1225 Margarethe of Austria;
   they got:
     a) Frederick;
     b) Heinrich, Duke of Austria and Styria; † 1250;
Heinrich never acted as duke because of disputed succession after 1246; [9753]

Yolande de Brienne = Jolande of Jerusalem = Isabella de Brienne, * 1211 or 1212; m(2) 09/11 1225; † 08/05 or 25/04 1228;
From 1225 Queen Isabella II of Jerusalem;
d King Jean de Brienne of Jerusalem.
children :
1a.   Margareta; * 06/11 1226; † August 1227;
2.   Konrad IV = Conrad (030); * 25/04 1228 in Andria, Apulia; † 21/05 1254;
     Elected king of Jerusalem when 7 days old;

Bianca Lancia der Jüngeren; * 1200 c.; m(3); † 1233/1234;
children :
3.   Costanza / Anna; * 1230/1232; † April 1307 as nun in Valencia;
     m 1244 Emperor Johannes III Dukas Vatatzes of Nicaea;
4.   Manfred, * 1231 or 1232; † 26/02 1266;
Became King of Sicily and was killed at the battle of Benevento;
   m(1) Beatrice of Savoy, d Count Amadeus IV of Savoy;
   they got:
   a) Constance, † 1302;
     m King Peter III of Aragon;
   m(2) Helena Angelina of Epirus, d Prince Michael II of Epirus;
   they got:
   b) Beatrice;
     m Marquis Thomas of Saluzzo.
5.   Violanta = Violente; * before 1233; † after summer 1264;
   m 1245/1246 Ricardo Graf von Caserta, † after 02/03 1265;

Isabella of England, * 1214, m(3) 15/07 1235, † 01/12 1241; d king John of England.
children :
6.   Jordan; * 1236; † 1236;
7.   Margaret = Margareta; * 1237 or 01/12 1241; † 08/08 1270 in Frankfurt am Main;
     m 1254 Markgrave Albrecht der Entartete von Meißen, Landgraf von Thüringen; † 20/11 1315;
   they got:
     a) Margrave Frederick, claimant to Sicily;
8.   Carlotus, from 1242 called Heinrich; * 18/01 or 18/02 1238, † between Dec. 1253 and May 1254;
?   Frederick of Sicily - existence uncertain;
?   Carl Otto - existence uncertain;
?   Agnes of Sicily - existence uncertain;

Friedrich had further nearly a dozen registered illegitimate children:
Adelheid Enzio = Adelaide of Urslingen; * 1184 c. † 1222 c.
child :
9.   Enzo = Enzio = Heinz, king of Sardinia; * 1215; † 1271/1272;
He was imprisoned in Bologna from May 1248 at the battle of Fossalta;

Richina of Beilstein - Wolfsoden = Ruthina; * 1205 c.; † 1236;
child :
10.   Margaret of Swabia; * 1230; † 1297 or 1298;
   m Count Thomas Aquinao of Acerra;

By an daughter of a Sicilian count he had in his youth:
11.   Friedrich von Pettorano;
who fled with his family to Spain 1238 or 1240;

By Maria = Mathilde of Antioch, d (illegitimate) Bohemund III of Antiochia:
12.   Friedrich of Antiochia; * 1221; † 1256 in Foggia in a battle;

By further unknown or sundry mothers:
13.   Caterina da Marano; * 1216 c. † after 1272;
   m(2) Marquis Giacomo del Carretto of Noli and Finale;
14.   Salvaggia = Selvaggia; † 1244;
   m 23/05 1238 Ezzelino III da Romano, * 1223; † 1259;
15.   Riccardo = Richard of Theate, Conte di Chieti; * 1225; † after June 1249;
   by mother Manna, sister to Archbishop of Messina;
16.   Blanchefleur; * 1226; † 20/6 1279 in Montargis; a Dominican nun in Montargis;
17.   Conrad of Antioch;
18.   Gerhard; † after 1255;

Formed alliance with King Philip II Augustus of France, towards the Welfs.
At the battle 27/07 1214 at Bouvines SE of Lille the imperial forces of Otto IV were defeated by the French.
Henry Raspe, 1246-1247 and Wilhelm of Holland, 1247-1256, were anti-kings, but never crowned.
Henry Rape was m Gertrud of Austria;
The first laws in the German language were issued 1235 - Landfrieden von Mainz.
He founded Napoli University in 1224, the first government run university in existence;
030 EMPEROR
1250-1254
Konrad IV = Conrad IV
s(029); * 25/04 1228 in Andria; † 21/05 1254 in Lavello; ‡ Messina Cathedral, but body burned with church;
Duke of Swabia from 1235 to 1254;
King of the Romans elected and crowned Feb. 1237 in Vienna and confirmed at the Diet at Speyer in July.
He ruled from 13/12 1250;
King of Sicily from 1250 or 1254;
King of Jerusalem from 1228 to 1254.

First betrothed to Irmgard von Bayern, * c.1227, but she died before m in 1235 or 1236. Upon this blow Konrad took the sister:

Isabella = Elizabeth, * 1227; † m 01/09 1246; 09/10 1273; d Otto II of Bavaria, 1206-1253, and Agnes von Braunschweig; Elizabeth m(2) Count Mainard of Gorizia; she founded the convent of Stams by Tirol where she is buried.
child :
1.   Conradin = Konradin, * 25/03 1252 by Landshut;
     Duke of Swabia from 1254 to 1268;
     King of Jerusalem;
     Senator in Rome;
     Captured by Charles of Anjou and beheaded 29/10 1268 or 1269 in Naples; ‡ S. Maria del Carmine in Naples.
     m Oct. 1266 Sophia von Landsberg; * 1258; † 14/08 1318 in a Weissenfels convent;
     Se nærmere om perioden i Syditalien her.

 
Interregnum i perioden 1250 til 1273.



Forskellige fyrster af forskellige slægter regerede i perioder i interregnum:

Wilhelm af Holland; * 1228; † 28/01 1256; tysk modkonge fra 03/10 1247 mod Konrad IV. Wilhelm blev kronet i Aachen 01/11 1248.
Han forsøgte at vinde kejsertitlen fra 1247 til 1256;
Greve af Holland som William II af Holland fra 1234, der var hans faders, Floris IV, dødsår.
Han havde som modkonge kun få støtter, indtil Konrad IV forlod Tyskland for at tage til Sicilien. Derefter fik Wilhelm støtte af Sachsen, Brandenburg og Rhinområdets forbund.

Richard af Cornwall = Richard Earl of Cornwall;
* 06/01 1209; Earl fra 30/05 1227; † 02/04 1272;
Romernes konge fra 1256, kronet i Aachen 17/05 1257;
Forsøgte at blive kejser i hele perioden 1257-1272;
Han var Kong John Lacklands næstældste søn.
Han deltog i korstog 1236-1240-1242; var regent i England i året 1253, mens broder Henry III var i Gascogne.
m(1) Isabella of Pembroke;
m(2) Sanchia of Provence.
m(3) 1269 Beatrice af Falkenburg.

Alfons X af Castilien = Alfonso X = Alfonso the Wise = Alfonso the Learned = Alfonso el Sabio;
* 23/11 1221; † 04/04 1284;
Valgt til tysk konge 01/04 1257.
Konge over Castilien og Leon 1252-1284;
Aspirerede til kejsertitlen i hele perioden 1257-1272; hans moder, Beatrice, var barnebarn af kejser Frederick I.



Herefter indledes den lange Habsburgske periode.

Habsburgernes slægt
Omkring slutningen af 1100-tallet var de valgbemyndigede til kejservalget i Tyskland indskrænket til følgende seks:

Ærkbiskoppen af Mainz,
Ærkebiskoppen af Kölln,
Ærkebiskoppen af Trier,
Pfalzgreven,
eng.: Count Palatine,
Hertugen af Sachsen,
Markgreven af Preussen
og
Böhmens konge
.

Note om Pfalzgreven
Oprindelsen til begrebet skal findes i antikken. På latin var der en embedsmandstitel, palatinus; embedet var en slags slotsforvalter for kejserens slot, palatium. Ordet blev i middelalderen også benyttet om officerer tæt på en fyrste, hirdmænd, og hvis disse var fornemme nok, adelige nok, blev titlen udvidet til comes palatinus, greve.

Mere specielt blev ordet brugt om en af de tyske fyrster, der deltog i kejservalget. Oprindelsen til dette var også et (eller flere) hofembeder ved de middelalderlige tyske hoffer. Hos Karl den Store og ottonerne var embedets funktion en slags hofjurist eller statsanklager. Han administrerede edsaflæggelser, forfattede anklageskrifter og holdt register over forhandlinger i retten.

Senere i middelalderen fik han større selvstændige beføjelser og kunne dømme i visse sager. Embedet kunne samtidig omfatte andre hofadministrative funktioner inden for regnskab og organisation.

Under de efterfølgende regenter, de salisk-frankiske og de saksiske kejsere, blev titlen givet til adelsmænd, der repræsenterede kejseren eller kongen i diverse provinser, en slags amtmand eller guvernør, der sørgede for lov og orden, skatteopkrævning og at profit fra kongelige godser blev returneret til kongen. De områder, hvor dette system særligt blev brugt, var Sachsen, Bayern og Lorraine.

Embedet forsvandt efterhånden alle andre steder i Tyskland end i Lorraine, og fra Frederick I's tid blev begrebet alene knyttet til fyrsten over Lorraine - på dansk blev det til Pfalzgreven og på engelsk til Countship Palatine of the Rhine = the Palatinate. Titlen har sporadisk været anvendt både i England og i Nordamerika i kolonitiden.

Området i Tyskland, der blev Pfalzgrevens, er delt i to. Det ene ligger på begge sider af Rhinen mellem Mainflodens og Neckarflodens udløb i Rhinen med hovedstad i Heidelberg. Det andet område ligger i Bayerns nordlige del omkring floden Naab, før den løber ud i Donau og derfra mod Böhmens skove mod øst. Efter middelalderen har områderne haft omskiftelige fyrster og været del i religionskrigene omkring reformationen.
Note om Begge Sicilier
Begrebet Begge Sicilier eller den engelske betegnelse The Two Sicilies dækker over rigsdannelser for området Syditalien og øen Sicilien. Men betegnelserne passer kun inden for bestemte tidsperioder. Engelsk historie anvender udtrykket om perioden fra ca. 1450 til ca. 1850, mens historieskrivningen fra Danmark anfører tidsperioden som smallere brugt korrekt om årene 1815-1861. Se regentlisterne fra 1266 sidst i de franske lister. Mere omfattende er området behandlet i teksten om normannerne.

Områderne blev først forenet under samme styre af normannerne i det elvte århundrede, hvor Robert Guiscard og hans broder Roger I erobrede landene fra muslimerne, de byzantinske kejsere og lombarderne fra Norditalien. Normannerfyrsten Roger II, Roger Is søn, tog i 1130 kongetitlen af Sicilien og Apulien. Forårsaget af ægteskab mellem Roger IIs datter, Constantia, og Henrik, tysk prins af Hohenstaufenslægten, senere Henrik VI (026), tog denne slægt fra ca. 1180 kongetitlen over Sicilien til sig, og i 1194 blev Henrik VI kronet i Palermos domkirke. Særligt for Henrik VIs søn, Frederick II, kejser fra 1198 til 1250, blev området en betydelig brik i hans politiske liv.

Efter Hohenstauferne var uddøde, gik omåderne til den franske kong Louis IXs broder, Karl af Anjou = Charles af Anjou fra 1266, og han flyttede hovedstaden fra Palermo til Napoli og regerede med hård hånd indtil 1282, hvor et oprør - begivenheden kaldes for den Sicilianske Vesper - fik området løsrevet fra Anjouerne.
[9753]

Områderne blev nu separeret, og den franske fyrsteslægt, Angevinerne, fik herredømmet over Syditalien, mens det spanske dynasti fra Aragonien fik øen Sicilien under den daværende kong Peter III, der var svigersøn til Manfred (under 029), der havde været statholder på Sicilien og var Frederick IIs søn. De siddende regenter i begge områder påkaldte sig titlen konge af Sicilien. Sicilien blev dog hurtigt delvis selvstyrende, for efter Peter IIIs død allerede i 1285 blev styret overdraget hans yngre sønner: Jakob fra 1285-1291 og Frederick fra 1291-1337.

De to områder blev igen forenet i 1443 under den aragonske konge, Alfonso V (Sp. A18). Ved den lejlighed tog han den latinske titel Rex Utriusque Siciliae = king of the Two Sicilies. Samme titel benyttede hans to efterfølgende generationer: sønnen Ferdinand I og sønnesønnen Ferdinand II.

Fra 1504 var området under spansk overherredømme og blev regeret af vicekonger. Titlen blev genbrugt af regenterne op gennem århundrederne - for det meste Habsburgere og spaniere - og fra 1815 til 1861 blev det officielle navn på områderne Begge Sicilier = The Two Sicilies. Derefter indgik områderne i den nydannede italienske stat. Ved kundgørelsen om sammenlægningen den 12/12 1816 ændrede kong Ferdinand V sin titel til kong Ferdinand I, og sammenlægningen havde kongen dog accepteret betingelserne for allerede den 12/7 1815. Der var tale om en østrigsk lydkonge.

--- Og nu retur til de tyske kejsere:
No. Ruling Names and remarks
031 EMPEROR
1273-1291
Rudolf I of Habsburg
s Albert IV, the founder of the Habsburg line, and Countess Heilwige of Kiburg. * 01/05 1218, † 15/07 1291; ‡ Speyer Cathedral;
Count of Habsburg 1239 to 1291;
Elected king and emperor 01/10 1273;
The royal coronation took place at Aachen 23/10 or 24/10 1273.
Rudolf was never crowned emperor.

Gertrude of Hohenberg called Anna from 1273; * c.1225; m(1) 1245 in Elsass; † 16/02 1281;
children :
1.   Mathilda; * 1253; † 23/12 1304;
   m 24/10 1273 Louis II of Bavaria = Ludwig II der Strenge von Bayern;
2.   Albert; * 1255, † 01/05 1308; from 1282 Duke of Austria; later emperor (033);
3.   Catherine = Katharina; * 1256 or 1265; † 04/04 1282;
   m 1279 King Otto III of Hungary, * 11/02 1261 - † 09/09 1312, and of Bavaria or Lower Bavaria;
4.   Agnes Gertrud; * 1257; † 11/10 1322;
   m 1273 Albert II of Saxony, 1250-25/08 1298;
5.   Hedwig; * 1258; † 1303;
   m 1270 Otto of Brandenburg, 1238-27/11 1309;
6.   Clementia; * 1262; † 07/02 1293;
   m 1281 King Charles I Martel of Anjou and Hungary, 1271-12/08 1295;
7.   Hartmann Count of Habsburg; * 1263; † 20/12 1281;
8.   Rudolf II; * 1270;
   m 1289, † 10/05 1290; from 1282 Duke of Swabia and Austria (Aus.190);

[Rudolf I's two children were married to Ottokar II's two daughters before the fathers' conflict escalated and ended with the battle at Marchfeld 26/08 1278. **daughters marriages are unconfirmed**]
Ottokar's allies were Brandenburg, Meissen, Thuringia, Bavaria, Poland, Silesia and Czechia, while Rudolf commanded troops from Austria, Styria, Switzerland, Hungary and Kumanovo (Macedonia).

(According to the [9622] genealogies Rudolf only had one son, John the Parricide, 1290-1313).

When Rudolf died, three cantons in Switzerland prepared for independence and formed the original free Switzerland, and the date, when the news was learned, the 1st of August, is still the national day of Switzerland.
  9.   Guta = Juta; * 13/03 1271; † 18/06 1297;
     m 1285 King Wenceslas II of Bohemia, 17/09 1271 - 21/06 1305;
10.   Karl count of Habsburg; * 14/02 1276; † 16/08 1276;

Isabelle of Burgundy = Agnes von Burgund; * c.1270; † 1323; m(2) May 1284 in Besancon; d Hugh IV of Burgundy;
no children;
032 1292-1298 Adolf of Nassau
s Count Walram II of Nassau and Adelheid of Katzenelnbogen; * 1250 to 1255; † 02/07 1298;
Adolf was deposed 23/06 1298 by the electors. He was killed in battle with the new-elected, Albert I, at Göllheim.
Adolf had good relationships with the English Edward I and promoted him to imperial vicar of the Netherlands.
King of Germany elected 05/05 1291 or 1292;

Imagina of Isenburg-Limburg; m 1270; † after 1313;
d Gerlach I of Isenburg and Imagina of Blieskastel;
children :
1.   Henry = Heinrich; died young;
2.   Robert = Ruprecht; † 02/12 1304;
   betrothed to Agnes; * 06/10 1289; † right after 06/08 1296; d Wenceslaus II of Bohemia;
3.   Count Gerlach I of Nassau-Wiesbaden;
4.   Adolf; * 1292; † 1294
5.   Walram III of Nassau-Wiesbaden;
6.   Adelheid; † 26/05 1338; Abbess of Klarenthal Abbey;
7.   Imagina; died young;
8.   Matilda; * c. 1280; † 19/06 1323;
   m Duke Rudolf I "the Stammerer" of Upper Bavaria (Bav. 600).
033 EMPEROR
1298-1308
Albert I of Austria = Albrekt I
s(031); * 1255; † 01/05 1308; Habsburg line.
Elected King of the Romans = Germany 28/07 1298;
Crowned 24/08 1298;
He was an ally of France and in oppposition with the pope; later he changed his sympathies in order to obtain the imperial crown.
From 30/04 1303 the church recognized Albert as king, and 17/07 1303 he accepted the terms from the papacy - that the papacy alone could transfer the imperial crown.
Albert I was murdered by a nephew 01/05 1308.

Elizabeth of Tyrol; m 1274;
children :
1.   Anne = Anna; * 1280; † 19/03 1327 or 1328;
     m(1) 1295 Margrave Hermann of Brandenburg;
     m(2) 1310 Duke Henry VI the Good of Breslau;
2.   Agnes, * 18/05 1281, † 10/06 1364;
     m 1296 King Andras III of Hungary, later widowed and prioress at Königfelden.
3.   Rudolf III; * 1282; † 04/07 1307; King of Bohemia, Duke of Austria;
     m(1) Blanche of France 1300;
     m(2) Elisabeth of Poland 1306; Line extinct, died before father;
4.   Elisabeth; * ?; † 1352 or 19/05 1353;
     m 1304 or 1306 Duke Frederick IV of Lorraine;
5.   Frederick the Handsome = Frederick the Fair; (036); * 1289; † 13/01 1330;
6.   Leopold I; * 1289 or 04/08 1290; † 28/02 1326;
     m 1315 Catherine of Savoy;
     they got:
     a) Catherine, 1320-1349;
     b) Agnes, 1321-1392;
7.   Catherine; * 1295; † 18/01 1323;
     m 1316 Duke Charles of Sicily-Anjou and Calabria (Nap. N14);
8.   Albert II the Wise;(133); * 12/12 1298; † 20/07 1358;
     m Johanna of Pfirt 1324;
9.   Heinrich = Henry; * 1299; † 03/02 1327;
   m - line extinct;
10.   Meinhard; * 1300; died young;
11.   Otto; * 23/07 1301; † 26/02 1339;
   m - line extinct;
12.   Jutta; † 1329;
   m 26/03 1319 Count Ludwig V of Öttingen in Baden;
133 - Albert II the Wise
s(033); * 12/12 1298; † 20/07 1358;

Johanna of Pfirt; * ?, m 1324, † ?;
1.   Rudolf IV; * 1339; † 1365; The Founder Duke of Austria;
     m 1357 Catharine of Luxemburg;
2.   Catharine; * 1342; † 1381; Abbess;
3.   Margaret; * 1346; † 1366;
     m(1) 1359 Meinhard of Bavaria;
     m(2) 1364 Johann of Tyrol;
4.   Frederick III; * 1347; † 1362; Duke of Austria;
5.   Albert III; (238); * 1348; † 1395; Duke of Austria;
     m(1) 1366 Elisabeth of Bohemia;
     m(2) 1375 Beatrix of Nuremberg;
6.   Leopold III; (239); * 1351; † 1386; Duke of Austria, killed at Sempach;
     m 1365 Viridis Visconti;
034 1308-1313 Henry VII = Henry IV of Luxemburg = Henrik VII af Luxemburg
* 12/07 1274 or 1278 or 1279; † 24/08 1313 near Siena.
His brother, archbishop Baldwin of Trier, lobbied for his brother, who was elected
King of Germany 27/11 1308-1313 and reigned as Henry VII;
Crowned 06/01 1309.
Count of Luxemburg and Laroche;
Margrave of Arlon;
Crowned Rome, Lateran, 29/06 1312;

Margaret of Brabant; * 04/10 1276; m 09/06 1292; † 14/12 1311; d Duke John I of Brabant;
children :
1.   John of Luxembourg; King of Bohemia
   m(1) Elizabeth; d Wenzel II;
     they ruled:
     the duchy of Bohemia which was transferred from Henry of Carinthia during the diet at Frankfurt in 1310.

2.   Marie; *1304, † 26/03 1324 (in childbirth);
    m 21/09 1322 King Charles IV of France; * 1295; † 1328;
3.   Beatrix; *1305; † 11/11 1319 (after childbirth);
   m 00/11 1318 King Charles II Robert of Hungary; * 1288; † 16/07 1342;
035 1314-1347 Ludwig the Bavarian = Ludwig IV = Ludvig af Bayern, Wittelsbach
* 01/04 1282 or 1283c; † 11/10 1347;
King of Germany from 1314;
King of Italy from 1327;
Emperor from 17/01 1328;

Beatrix of Swidnica / Schweidnitze; * ca. 1292; † 24/8 1322; m(1) ca. 1309;
children :
  1.   Mathilde; * c. 21/06 1313; † 02/07 1346;
   m 01/07 1329 Margrave Frederick II of Meissen; * 1310; † 18/11 1349;
  2.   Child; * Sept. 1314; † 1314;
  3.   Anna; * c. 1316; † 29/01 1319;
  4.   Louis V the Brandenburger, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Margrave of Brandenburg; * 1315 or 1316; † 18/09 1361;
     m(1) 1324 Margaret of Denmark; * 1305; † 1340;
     m(2) 1342 Margaret of Carinthia; * 1318; † 1369;
  5.   Agnes; * c. 1318; died young;
  6.   Duke Stephen II of Lower Bavaria (Bav. 690); * 1319; † 1375;
     m(1) 1328 Elizabeth of Sicily; * ca. 1309; † 1349;
     m(2) 1359 Margarete of Nuremberg; * ca. 1333; † 1377;

Countess Margaret of Hainaut and Holland; m(2) 1324;
children :
  7.   Margareta of Bavaria; * 1325; † 1374;
   m(1) 23/01 1351 Duke Stephen of Transylvania / Slavonia; † 1354; s King Charles I Robert of Hungary;
   m(2) 1357 or 1358 Gerlach von Hohenlohe; * c. 1344; † c. 1387;
   8.   Anna; * c. 1326; † 03/06 1361;
   m John I of Lower Bavaria; * 1329; † 1340;
  9.   Duke Louis VI the Roman of Upper Bavaria, Elector of Brandenburg (Bav. 630); * 1328 or 12/05 1330; † 14/05 1365;
     m(1) ca. 1345 Princess Kunigunde of Poland; * ca. 1335; † 1357;
     m(2) 1360 Princess Ingeborg of Mecklenburg; * ca. 1340; † ca. 1395;
10.   Elisabeth; * 1329; † 02/08 1402;
   m(1) 22/11 1350 Lord Cangrande II della Scala of Verona; * 1332; † 14/12 1359;
   m(2) 1362 Count Ulrich of Württemberg; * 1342; † 23/08 1388 in the Battle of Döffingen;
11.   William V of Holland; * 1330; † 1388 or 1389;
     as Duke William I of Lower Bavaria, and as Count William III of Hainaut;
     m 1352 Matilda of Lancaster; * 1335; † 1362;
12.   Duke Albert I of Holland, Hainaut and Lower Bavaria-Straubing (Bav. 660); * 25/07 1336; † 13/12 1404;
     m(1) 1353 Margarete of Brieg; * 1342; † 1386;
     m(2) 1394 Margarete of Cleve; * ca. 1375; † 1412;
13.   Duke Otto V the Bavarian Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg (Bav. 650); * 1340 or 1346; † 1379;
14.   Beatrice = Beatrix of Bavaria; * 1344; † 25/12 1359;
   m before 25/10 1356 King Erik XII of Sweden;
15.   Agnes; * 1345; † 11/11 1352;
16.   Louis; * October 1347; † 1348;

Excommunicated 1324. He was allied with the Ghibelline party in Italy.
Crowned as excommunicated in Rome 1328 by Sciarra Colonna, a layman.
At Whitsunday he was crowned again by pope Nicholas V.
Edward III met Ludwig in 1338, and Edward was appointed imperial vicar of the Netherlands, but denounced the title shortly after.
036 KING
1314-1330
Frederick II of Austria of Habsburg = Friedrich der Schöne = Frederick the Handsome = Frederick the Fair = Frederik den Smukke
s(033); * 1289, † 13/01 1330;
Anti-king of Germany 25/11 1314;
The king ruled in Bohemia as Johann 07/02 1311 to 26/08 1346; (Boh. 450);.
Disputed king, defeated in the run for empire in 1322, Mühldorff Battle, prisoner of Ludwig (035);

Isabella of Aragon, m 1315;
children :
1.   Frederick; * 1316; † 1322;
2.   Elisabeth; * 1317; † 1336;
3.   Anna; * 1318; † 1343;
     m(1) 1328 Henry of Bavaria;
     m(2) 1336 John of Goerz;
037 1346-1378 Charles IV of Luxemburg = Karl IV af Böhmen, Luxemburg = Wenzel (baptized)
s king John of Bohemia and Elizabeth; gs (034); ggs (031); * 14/05 1316 in Praha; † 29/11 1378;
From 1323 he was brought up by his uncle, Charles V of France.
Anti-king of Germany,
Crowned 26/11 1346;
King of Germany from 11/07 1346.
King of Bohemia 26/08 1346 or 02/09 1347 as Karl I;
King of Lombardy from 06/01 1355;
Emperor elect from 11/07 1346;
Crowned in Rome at Easter 05/04 1355 by a papal legate.
Elected Roman king 17/06 1349;
Crowned 25/07 1349;
King of Burgundy from 04/06 1365;
Crowned at Arles.

The Golden Bull issued 1356 was an important electoral instrument stating the seven electors with the Archbishop of Mainz as president.

Blanche of Valois = Blanca Margarete von Valois; m(1) 1329; niece to Charles V of France.
children :
  1.   Margarete; * 1335; † 1349;
     m 1338 King Ludwig I of Hungary and Poland;
  2.   Katharina; * 1342, † 1395;
     m(1) 1353 Duke Rudolf IV of Austria = Rudolf the Founder; he died when 26; no children;
     m(2) 1366 Kurfürst Otto V von Brandenburg;

Anna von der Pfalz; m(2) 1349;
child :
  3.   Wenzel; * 1350; † 1351;

Anna von Schweidnitz; m(3) 1353;
children :
  4.   Elisabeth; * 1358; † 1373;
     m 1366 Duke Albrecht III of Austria;
  5.   Wenzel IV (039); * 1361; † 1419; King of Bohemia (Boh. 470);
     m(1) 1370 Johanna von Bayern;
     m(2) 1389 Sophie von Bayern;

Elisabeth von Pommern; m(4) 1365; d Duke Bogislav of Pomerania (PVI-85 - 1);
children :
  6.   Anne; * 1366; † 1394;
     m King Richard II of England;
  7.   Sigismund, (042); * 1368; † 1437; Margrave of Brandenburg; emperor;
  8.   John = Johann von Görlitz, Duke of Görlitz; * 1370; † 1396; margrave of Brandenburg;
     m 1388 Richardis von Mecklenburg-Schwerin;
  9.   Karl; * 1372; † 1373;
10.   Margarete; * 1373; † 1410;
     m 1387 Burggraf Johann III von Nürnberg;
11.   Heinrich; * 1377; † 1378;



After the death of Rudolf, the Habsburg family was divided into two lines:
The Albertine line and the Leopoldine line.
 
038 1347-1349 Gunther of Schwarzburg
† 14/6 1349;
Anti-king of Germany 30/1 1349; abdicated 24/5 1349; never crowned;
238 - Albert III
s(133); * 1348, † 1395;

Elisabeth of Bohemia, m(1) 1366;
no children;

Beatrix of Nuremberg, m(2) 1375;
child :
1.   Albert IV (338); * 1377; † 1404;
338 - Albert IV
s(238); * 1377, † 1404;
Duke of Austria;

Johanna of Bavaria, m 1390;
children :
1.   Margaret; * 1395; † 1447;
   m Henry of Bavaria 1412;
2.   Albert V; (044); * 1397; † 1439;
   m 1421;
039 1378-1400 Wenceslas of Bohemia = Wenzel IV af Böhmen, Luxemburg
s(037); * 1361; † 1419 at Prague;
German king as Wenzel IV;
King of Bohemia as Wenceslas IV, crowned 1363; deposed by his halfbrother Sigismund in 1402;
King of the Romans 1376;
He was never crowned in Rome. Taken into custody in Austria by cousin Jobst.
Deposed 1400 for insanity and cruelty, however, he kept his title as King of Germany for the rest of his life, and was later released. In 1402 he was imprisoned again for a while, later he took to drinking.

Joanna of Lower Bavaria; m(1); † 1386;
No children ;

Sophia of Bavaria; m(2) 1389;
No children ;

Jan Hus was executed 1415.
239 - Leopold III
s(133); * 1351, † 1386;
Duke of Austria and Styria; killed at the battle of Sempach;

Viridis Visconti, m 1365;
children :
1.   William; * 1370; m 1401, † 1406; m Jeanne of Anjou (Nap. N16-3);
2.   Leopold IV the Proud; * 1371; † 1411; Duke of Austria and Styria;
   m Catherine of Burgundy 1393;
3.   Ernest the iron Duke of Austria, (339); * 1377; † 1424;
   m(1) Margaret of Pomerania 1392;
   m(2) Cymberga of Masovia 1412;
4.   Elisabeth; * 1378; † 1392;
5.   Frederick IV of the Empty Purse; * 1382; † 1439; Duke of Tyrol;
   m(1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate 1407 - no children;
   m(2) Anne of Brunswick 1410;
     they got:
     a) Duke Sigismund of Tyrol, * 1427; † 1496;
6.   Catharine; * ?; † 1391; Abbess;
339 - Ernest the Iron Duke of Austria
s(239); * 1377, † 1424;
Duke of Austria and Styria;

Margaret of Pomerania, m(1) 1392;
no children :

Cymberga of Masovia; m(2) 1412;
children :
1.   Frederick III; (045); * 1440; m 1452, † 1493;
2.   Margaretha; * 1416; † 12/02 1486;
   m 1431 Frederick of Saxony; * 1412; † 1464;
3.   Albert VI, Duke of Austria; * 18/12 1418; † 02/12 1463;
   m 1452 Mathilde of the Rhine;
4.   Katharine; * 1424; † 11/09 1493;
   m 1447 Karl of Baden; * 1424; † 1475;
5-9.   5 more children; died in infancy;
040 1400 Frederick of Brunswick-Luneburg anti-king;
 
041 1400-1410 Rupert III of the Palatinate = Ruprekt af Pfalz
† 18/05 1410. He was of Rudolf I's kin (031).
King of Romans from 21/08 1400. Failed with nearly all political entreprises.

child :
1.   John, Count of the Palatinate;
   m Catherine of Pomerania;
     they got:
     a) Christoffer of Bavaria, King of Denmark;
042 EMPEROR 1433-1437 Sigismund of Bohemia-Hungary = Sigismund af Ungarn, Luxemburg
s(037); * 1368; † 09/12 1437;
King of Hungary 31/03 1387;
King of Germany from 20/09 1410;
King of Bohemia 29/07 1420;
King of Lombardy 25/11 1431;
Emperor from 31/03 1433.

Maria von Ungarn; m(1) 1385; † 1392; d Louis I the Great of Hungary;
child :
1.   Elisabeth;
   m Duke Albert of Austria (044), founded the Austrian line who ruled Austria to 1918.

Barbara von Cilli; m(2) 1408; dd King Kazimir III of Poland (PVI-85 - 3);
043 1410-1411 Jobst of Moravia anti-king;
bs(037); † 18/01 1411;
King of Germany 01/10 1410;
044 EMPEROR
1437-1439
Albert II = Albrecht II = Albert V of Austria
s(338); gggs(033); * 1397; † 27/10 1439 in Vienna.
Elected King of the Romans 18/03 1438;
King of Bohemia 29/06 1438;
King of Hungary 01/01 1438;

Elisabeth of Luxemburg, m 1421;
children :
1.   Anne; * 1432; † 1462;
     m 1446 William of Saxony;
2.   George; * 1435; † 1435;
3.   Elisabeth; * 1437; † 1505;
     m 1454 King Casimir IV of Poland;
4.   Ladislaus; * 1440; † 1457; Posthumus King of Hungary and Bohemia;


Albert II can be reckoned as the first of the Albertine-Habsburg line ruling from now to 1745, followed by the Habsburg-Lothringian line to 1871 and eventually - with interruption of the revolution in 1806 - to 1918.
045 EMPEROR
1440-1493
Frederick III of Styria = Friedrich III von Steiermark = Frederick V of Inner Austria
s(339), gggs(033) Leopoldine line; * 21/09 1415; † 18-19/08 1493 in Linz when he had his leg amputated; ‡ Stephansdom Vienna.
Archduke of Lower Austria and Duke of Styria + Carinthia + Carniola from 1424 as Frederick V; co-ruler Albert VI to 1463;
King of Germany 06/04 1440 as Friedrich IV;
King of Lombardy, Italy 16/03 1452;
Holy Roman Emperor 19/03 1452 as Friedrich III, crowned in Rome 1452 by Nicolas V;
King of Hungary 04/03 1459;
Later called Frederick the Fat; Duke of Inner Austria;
His brother was Albert VI of Upper Austria, * 18/12 1418, † 02/12 1463. Frederick took over in 1463;
His nephew Ladislaus Posthumus ruled Lower Austria. Frederick took over in 1457.
His nephew Sigismund ruled Tirol. Later Frederick took over.
Agreed to the Vienna Concordat with the Vatican; the tractate was in force until 1806;

Eleanor of Portugal = Leonora, * 1434, m 1452, † 1467; after the wedding she changed her name to Helena;
d King Duarte = Edward; gd João I of Portugal;
children :
1.   Christopher of Austria, * 16/11 1455, † 21/03 1456;
2.   Maximilian, * 22/3 1459, † 12/01 1519, (046);
3.   Helene, * 3/11 1460, † 28/02 1461;
4.   Cunegunde = Kunigunde, * 15/03 1465, † 06/08 1520;
   m 02/01 1487 Albert IV the Wise of Bavaria, * 1447; † 1508;
5.   John, * 09/08 1466, † 10/02 1467;
046 EMPEROR
1493-1519
Maximilian I Archduke of Austria-Burgundy; »The Last Knight«
s(045). * 22/03 1459 at Wiener-Neustadt; † 12/01 1519 at Wels;
Elected king of the Romans 16/02 1468;
Ruled from 09/04 1468;
Crowned Aachen 09/04 1468;
Joint rule of father and son for the next seven years;
King of Burgundy from 1477;
King of Hungary 4/4 1490;
Emperor elect from 1486 or 1493, as he could not reach Rome for a crowning because of the Venetian opposition.
Pope Julius II consented the election 04/02 1508;
The 06/02 1508 in Trent Cathedral a bit N of Lake Garda he took the title »Roman Emperor Elect« and began his reign 10/02 1508;

Through his wife Maximilian became heir to the anti-French Burgundy and parts of the old Lorraine areas in the Netherlands and along the French eastern borders.

Mary of Burgundy = Mary the Rich; * 1457; m(1) 18/08 1477; † 27/03 1482; d Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy; The Valois dynasty;
children :
1.   Philip (146), * 22/06 1478, † 25/09 1508;
later Philip I the Handsome of Spain (146) through marriage to
   m 1496 Juana of Castile = Joanna the Mad of Castile, 1479-1506,
   second d Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon & Castile [9495 p.139];
2.   Margaret of Austria (046a), = la tante de l'Europe; * 10/01 1480, † 01/12 1530;
   betrothed to Charles VIII of France;
   later sent back, as Charles wanted to marry Duchess Anne of Brittany, then already married by proxy to Maximilian.
   m(1) 1497 Crown Prince Juan of Castile, * 1478; † 1497; s Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon & Castile;
   m(2) 1501 Philibert of Saxony, * 1480; † 1504;
3.   Franz, * 1481, † 1481;

Anne of Brittany, Duchess, m(2) 1490, the marriage was desolved later after pressure from France;
no children;

Bianca Maria Sforza of Milan, * 1472, m(3) 1494, † 1510; she was the niece of Duke Ludovico Moro of Milan [9495 p.139].
no children;

Maximilian had a further 13 registered children outside wedlock.
146 - Philip I of Spain = Philip I the Handsome of Spain = Philip den Skønne af Østrig;
s(046); * 22/06 1478, † 25/09 1506 or 1508;

Juana of Castile = Joanna the Mad of Castile; * 1479, m 1496, † 1555, second d Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon & Castile;
children :
1.   Eleanor, * 24/11 1498, † 18/02 1558;
     m(1) 1518 King Manuel of Portugal; * 1469; † 1521
     m(2) 1530 King Francis I of France; * 1494; † 1547;
2.   Charles V (047), * 24/02 1500, † 21/09 1558;
3.   Isabella, * 18/07 1501, † 19/01 1526;
     m 1515 Christian II of Denmark; * 1481; † 1559;
4.   Ferdinand I (048), * 1503, † 1564;
5.   Mary, * 17/09 1505; † 18/10 1558;
   m 1522 Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia; * 1506; † 1526;
6.   Catherine, * 14/01 1507; † 12/02 1578;
   m 1525 King John III of Portugal; 1502; † 1557;
047 EMPEROR
1519-1556
Charles V = Charles I of Spain from 1516-1556;
s(146), * 24/02 1500 at Prinsenhof in Ghent; † 21/09 1558;
King of Castile and Aragon from 1516;
Archduke Charles I of Austria from 1519-1521;
King of Germany 28/6 1519, crowned in Aachen 23/10 1520;
German-Roman Emperor elect 26/10 1520;
Ruled as emperor from 24/02 1530;
Crowned as emperor in Bologna 24/02 1530 by pope Clement VII; the last emperor to be crowned by a pope.
Abdicated 23/08 1556 or 07/09 1556 the imperial crown; he had already 25/10 1555 abdicated the Netherlands;
King Lombardy, Italy 22/02 1530;
Crowned in Bologna 22/02 1530;

Duke of Burgundy;
King of Hungary;
He was raised by Margaret of York and later by his aunt Margaret of Austria (046a), after his father's death 1506; he was known in France as Charles-Quint;

He was confronted with Martin Luther from 1517 and forward.

Isabella of Portugal, * 1503, m 1526, † 1539; d King Manuel I of Portugal;
children :
1.   Philip II of Spain, (147) * 21/05 1527, † 13/09 1598;
     m Mary of England;
2.   Mary of Spain, * 21/06 1528; † 26/02 1603;
   m 1548 Maximilian II, * 1527; † 1576, (049);
3.   Isabella of Spain, * 1529, † 1529;
4.   Ferdinand of Spain, * 1530, † 1530;
5.   Juana of Spain, * 24/06 1537;
   m(1) 1552, † 07/09 1573;
   m(2) Prince John of Portugal; * 1537; † 1554;
6.   Juan of Spain, * 1538, † 1538;
7.   Ferdinand, * 1539, † 1539;

Born outside wedlock by:
Johanna van der Gheenst :
8.   Margaret of Parma = Margaret of Austria, * 1521/1522, † 18/01 1586;
   Governor general of the Netherlands 1559-1567;
   m(1) 1536 Alessandro de Medici, Duke of Florence, * 1510, † 1537;
   m(2) 1538 Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma, * 1524; † 1586, duke from 1547,
     they got:
     a) Alessandro Farnese.

9.   John of Austria, * 24/02 1547, † 01/10 1578; mother unknown to me.
John was supreme commander of the fleet against the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto Sunday 07/10 1571;
147 - Philip II of Spain
s(047), * 21/05 1527, † 13/09 1598;
Inherited burgundy after (047);

Maria of Portugal, * 1527, m(1) 1543, † 1545;
children :
1.   Carlos, Prince of Asturias, * 08/07 1545, † 24/07 1568;

Mary I, Queen of England, * 1516, m(2) 1554, † 1558;
no children;

Elisabeth of France, * 1545, m(3) 1560, † 1568;
children :
2.   Isabella, * 12/08 1566; † 01/12 1633;
     m 1599 Archduke Cardinal Albert of Austria, * 1559; † 1621;
3.   Catalina, * 10/10 1567; † 06/11 1597;
     m 1585 Duke Charles Emanuel of Saxony; * 1562; † 1630;

Anna of Austria, d (049); * 1549, m(4) 1570, † 1580; Philip's cousin;
children :
4.   Ferdinand of Spain, * 04/12 1571, † 18/10 1578;
5.   Carlos Lorenzo, * 12/08 1573, † 30/06 1575;
6.   Diego, * 12/07 1575, † 12/11 1582;
7.   Philip III, (248); * 14/04 1578; † 31/03 1621;
   m 1599 cousin Archduchess Margaretha of Austria; * 1584; † 1611, (148);
   King of Spain as Philip III from 13/09 1598,
   King of Portugal as Philip II;
   Spain and Portugal had shared monarchs 1580-1640;
8.   Maria, * 14/02 1580, † 05/08 1583;

Philip had a further 4 registered children born out of wedlock.
048 EMPEROR
1558-1564
Ferdinand I = Ferdinand of Austria
s(146), * 1503; † 25/07 1564;
King of Hungary 16/12 1526;
King of Bohemia 21/02 1527;
King of Romans 05/01 1531;
Emperor 24/02 1556 after brother Charles' abdication;

Anne of Hungary, * 1503, m 1521, † 1547; d King Vladislav II Jagiellon and Hungarian King (380);
children :
  1.   Elisabeth, * 09/06 1526, † 15/06 1545;
   m 1543 Sigmund of Poland; * 1520; † 1572;
  2.   Maximilian II, (049), * 31/07 1527, † 12/10 1576;
  3.   Anne, * 7/7 1528, † 16/10 1590;
   m 1546 Albert V, Duke of Bavaria; * 1528; † 1579;
  4.   Ferdinand of Tyrol, * 14/06 1529, † 24/01 1595;
     m(1) 1557 Philippina Welser; * 1527; † 1580;
     m(2) 1582 Anna Gonzaga of Mantua; 1566; † 1621;
  5.   Maria, * 15/05 1531, † 11/12 1581;
   m 1546 William the Rich, Duke of Cleves; * 1516; † 1592;
  6.   Magdalena, * 14/08 1532, † 10/09 1590;
  7.   Katharina, * 15/09 1533, † 28/02 1572;
     m(1) 1549 Francisco III, Duke of Mantua; * 1533; † 1550;
     m(2) 1553 Sigmund II Augustus, King of Poland; * 1520; † 1572;
  8.   Eleonora, * 02/11 1534, † 05/08 1594;
   m 1561 Duke Guillermo I Gonzaga of Mantua; * 1538; † 1587;
  9.   Margaretha, * 16/02 1536, † 12/03 1567;
10.   Johann, * 10/04 1538, † 20/03 1539;
11.   Barbara, * 30/04 1539, † 19/09 1572;
   m 1565 Duke Alfonso II d'Este of Modena; * 1533; † 1597;
12.   Charles of Styria, (148); * 03 or 05/06 1540, † 10/07 1590;
   m 1571 Marie of Bavaria; * 1551; † 1608;
13.   Ursula, * 24/07 1541, † 30/04 1543;
14.   Helena, * 07/01 1543, † 05/03 1574;
15.   Johanna, * 24/01 1547, † 10/04 1578;
   m 1565 Francesco I Grand Duke of Tuscany; * 1541; † 1587;
148 - Charles of Styria = Karel von Steyer;
s(048), * 05/06 1540, † 10/07 1590;
In Austrian line;

Marie of Bavaria, * 1551, m 1571, † 1608;
children :
  1.   Ferdinand, * 1572, † 1572;
  2.   Anna, * 10/11 1572, † 10/02 1598;
   m 1592 Sigismund III of Poland;
  3.   Maria, * 10/11 1574, † 16/04 1621;
   m 1595 Sigismund II Bathory; * 1572; † 1613;
  4.   Catherina, * 13/03 1577, † 29/06 1595;
  5.   Elisabeth, * 13/03 1577, † 29/01 1586;
  6.   Ferdinand II, (052); * 06/07 1578; † 15/02 1637;
  7.   Karl, * 17/7 1579, † 1579;
  8.   Georgiana, * 22/03 1581, † 20/09 1597;
  9.   Eleonora, * 25/09 1582, † 28/01 1620;
10.   Maximilian Ernst, * 17/11 1583, † 18/02 1616;
11.   Margaretha, * 25/12 1584, † 03/10 1611;
   m 1599 Philip III; * 1578; † 1621 (248);
12.   Leopold V of Tyrol, * 08/10 1586, † 13/09 1632;
   m 1626 Claudia de Medici; * 1604; † 1648;
13.   Constantia, * 24/12 1588, † 10/07 1631;
   m 1605 King Sigismund III of Poland;
14.   Magdalena = Maria Maddalena, * 07/10 1589; † 01/11 1631;
      m 1608 Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany; * 1590; † 1621;
15.   Karl Josef, * 07/08 1590, † 28/12 1624;
248 - Philip III
s(147), * 14/04 1578, † 31/03 1621;
King of Spain;

Margaretha of Austria, * 1584, m 1599, † 1611;
children :
1.   Anna of Austria; * 23/09 1601; † ?;
   m 1615 Louis XIII of France;
2.   Maria; * 01/02 1603; † 1603;
3.   Philip IV; (149) * 08/04 1605; m(1) 1615, m(2) 1649, † 17/09 1665;
4.   Maria Anna of Austria; * 18/08 1606; † 13/05 1646;
   m 1631 Ferdinand III, (053),
5.   Carlos of Spain; * 15/09 1607; † 30/07 1632;
6.   Cardinal Ferdinand of Spain; * 16/05 1609; † 30/07 1632;
7.   Margareta of Spain; * 24/05 1610; † 01/03 1617;
8.   Alfonso; * 22/09 1611; † c.1611;
049 1564-1576 Maximilian II
s(048), * 31/07 1527; † 12/10 1576;
King of Germany 24/11 1562;
King of Bohemia 25/04 1548 or 1562 to 1576;
King of Hungary 08/09 1563 to 1576;
Emperor 25/07 1564;

Maria of Spain, * 1528, m 1548, † 1603; dCharles I of Spain;
children, Nos. 1, 2, 4-15 are all archdukes or -duchesses of Austria:
  1.   Anna, * 02/11 1549, † 26/10 1580;
   m 1570 Philip II of Spain; + (147)
  2.   Ferdinand, * 25/03 or 28/03 1551, † 25/06 1551 or 1552;
  3.   Rudolf II, (050); * 18/07 1552, † 20/01 1612;
  4.   Ernest, * 15/06 1553, † 20/02 1595;
  5.   Elisabeth, * 05/06 1554; † 22/01 1592;
   m 1570 Charles IX, King of France; * 1550; † 1574;
  6.   Maria, * 27/07 1555, † 25/06 1555 or 1556;
  7.   Matthias, (051); * 24/02 1557, m 1611, † 20/03 1619;
  7a.   Un-named, * 20/10 1557;
  8.   Maximilian, * 12/10 1558, † 02/11 1618;
  9.   Cardinal Albert, * 13/11 or 15/11 1559, m 1599, † 13/07 1621; Archbishop of Toledo; m Isabella, 1566-1633;
10.   Wenzel, * 09/03 1561, † 22/09 1578;
11.   Friedrich, * 21/06 1562, † 1562 or 16/01 1563;
12.   Maria, * 19/02 1564, † 26/03 1564;
13.   Karl, * 26/09 1565, † 1565 or 23/05 1566;
14.   Margaretha, * 25/01 1567, † 05/07 1633;
15.   Eleonora, * 04/11 1568, † 12/03 1580;

Emperor Maximilian was proposed as elected Polish king in 1576 but had no support from the Polish nobility.
149 - Philip IV
s(248); * 08/04 1605; † 17/09 1665;
King of Spain and Valladolid;

Elisabeth of France, * 1602, m(1) 1615, † 1644;
children :
1.   Maria, * 1621, † 1621;
2.   Margareta, * 1624, † 1624;
3.   Maria Eugenia, * 21/11 1625, † c.1625;
4.   Isabella, * 1637?, † 1637?;
5.   Balthasar Carlos Prince of Asturias, * 17/01 1636, † 09/10 1646;
6.   Maria Antonia, * 17/01 1636, † c.1636;
7.   Maria Theresa, * 20/09 1638; † 30/7 1683;
   m 1660 m Louis XIV of France;

Maria Anna of Austria, * 1637, m(2) 1649, † 1696;
children :
  8.   Margareta Maria Theresa, * 12/07 1651, † 12/03 1673;
   m 1666 Leopold I, (054);
  9.   Maria Ambrosia, * 1655, † 1655;
10.   Felipe Prosper, * 28/12 1657, † 01/11 1661;
11.   Tomas Carlos, * 23/12 1658, † c.1658;
12.   Carlos II, * 06/11 1661, † 01/11 1700; King of Spain;
   m(1) 1679 Marie Louise of France; *1662; † 1689;
   m(2) 1690 Maria Anna of Pfalz-Neuburg; * 1667; † 1740;
050 EMPEROR
1576-1612
Rudolf II
s(049); * 18/07 1552; † 20/01 1612 NS; ‡ Prague;
King 27/10 1575;
Emperor 12/10 1576;
Crowned King of Hungary 25/09 1572 as Rudolf I;
King of Bohemia 22/09 1575 as Rudolf II;
Archduke of Austria 1576 as Rudolf V;
no legitimate children, but at least six illegitimate by at least two different mothers;
mentally unstable;

He bought Tycho Brahe's journals.
 
The dukes and grand dukes of Mecklenburg from 1611
are listed in Saxony - a Danish text.

 
051 1557-1619
EMPEROR
1612-1619
Matthias
s(049); * 24/02 1557; † 20/03 1619;
Emperor 13/06 1612;
King of Hungary 26/06 1608 as Matthias II;
King of Bohemia from 23/05 1611;

Anna of Tyrol, Archduchess of Austria;, * 04/10 1585, m 04/12 1611, † 14/12 1618;
no legitimate children ;
052 EMPEROR
1619-1637
Ferdinand II of Styria = Ferdinand II von Steiermark
s(148), bs(049); * 06/07 1578, † 15/02 1637;
Emperor 28/08 1619;
King of Bohemia 29/06 1617;
King of Hungary 01/07 1618;

Maria Anna of Bavaria; * 1574, m(1) 1600, † 1616; d William the Pious;
children :
1.   Christina, * 25/05 1601, † 210/6 1601;
2.   Karl, * 25/05 1603, † 25/05 1603;
3.   Johann Karl, * 01/11 1605, † 26/12 1619;
4.   Ferdinand III, (053); * 13/07 1608; † 02/04 1657;
5.   Maria Anna, * 1610; † 1665;
   m 1635 Maximilian of Bavaria;
6.   Cecilia Renata, * 1611, † 1644;
   m 1637 King Ladislaus IV of Poland;
7.   Leopold William, * 1614, † 1652; became regent of the Netherlands;

Eleonora Gonzaga; * 1598, m(2) 1622, † 1655;
no children;
053 EMPEROR
1637-1658
Ferdinand III
s(052); * 13/07 1608; † 02/04 1657;
King of Hungary 08/12 1625;
King of Bohemia 27/11 1627;
King of Germany 22/12 1636;
Emperor from 15/02 1637;

Maria Anna; (248); Archduchess; cousin to husband; * 18/08 1606; m(1) 20/02 1631; † 13/05 1646; d King of Spain / Portugal;
children :
  1.   Ferdinand IV of Hungary (640); * 08/09 1633; † 09/07 1654;
  2.   Mariana = Maria Anna; * 22/12 or 24/12 1634; † 16/05 1696;
   m 07/10 or 08/11 1649 King Philip IV of Spain, * 08/04 1605; † 17/09 1665; He was her uncle through mother;
  3.   Philipp August, Archduke of Austria; * 15/07 1637, † 22/06 1637 or 1639;
  4.   Maximilian Thomas, Archduke of Austria; * 21/12 1638, † 29/06 1639;
  5.   Leopold I (660) (German 054); * 06 or 09/06 1640, † 05/05 1705;
  6.   Maria; * 13/05 1646; † 13/05 1646;

Marie Leopoldine, Archduchess of Austria; * 1632; m(2) 02/07 1648, they were cousins through fathers; † 07/08 1649;
d Archduke Leopold V of Austria;
child :
  7.   Karl Joseph; Archduke of Austria and Bishop of Olmütz and Breslau; * 07/08 1649; † 27/01 1664;
   He was Grand Master of Teutonic Knights from 1662;

Eleonora Gonzaga; * 18/11 1630; m(3) 30/04 1651; † 06/12 1686; d Duke Charles IV Gonzaga of Rethel;
children :
  8.   Theresia Maria Josefa; * 27/03 1652; † 26/07 1653;
  9.   Eleonore Maria Josefa; * 21/05 1653; † 17/12 1697;
   m(1) 27/02 1670 King Michal Korybut Wisniowiecki of Poland; * 18/06 1640; † 10/11 1673;
   m(2) 06/02 1678 Duke Charles V of Lorraine; * 1643; † 18/04 1690;
10.   Maria Anna Josefa; * 20/12 or 30/12 1654; † 04/04 1689;
   m 25/10 1678 Pfalzgraf Johann Wilhelm of Neuburg; * 1658; † 08/06 1716;
11.   Ferdinand Josef Alois; * 11/02 1657; † 16/06 1658;
053a 1653-1654 Ferdinand IV
s(053); * 08/09 1633; † 09/07 1654, died of smallpox;
King of Germany from 24/05 1653, crowned in Regensburg;
King of Bohemia from 05/08 1646;
King of Hungary (Hung. 420) from 16/06 1647;
054 EMPEROR
1658-1705
Leopold I
s(053); * 06/06 or 09/06 1640; † 05/05 1705;
King of Hungary 27/06 or 27/07 1655 as Lipot I;
King of Bohemia 14/09 1654 or 1656;
Emperor 1657 or 18/07 1658;
Crowned 01/08 1658;

Margareta Maria Theresa; (149); * 12/07 1651, m(1) 05/12 1666, † 12/03 1673;
children :
1.   Ferdinand Wenzel, * 28/09 1667, † 13/01 1668;
2.   Maria Antonia, * 18/01 1669, † 24/12 1692;
   m 1685 Elector of Bavaria Max Emanuel II; * 1662; † 1726;
3.   Johann Leopold, * 20/02 1670, † 20/02 1670;
4.   Maria Anna, * 09/02 1672, † 23/02 1672;

Claudia Felicitas of Tyrol = Archduchess Klaudia Felizitas of Austria; * 30/05 1653, m(2) 15/10 1673, † 08/04 1676;
children :
5.   Anna Maria, * 11/09 1674, † 21/12 1674;
6.   Maria Josefa, * 11/10 1675, † 11/07 1676;

Eleonora Magdalena of Pfalz Neuberg; * 06/01 1655, m(3) 14/12 1676, † 19/01 1720;
children :
  7.   Joseph I, (055); * 26/07 1678, m 1699, † 17/04 1711;
  8.   Christina, * 18/06 1679, † 18/06 1679;
  9.   Maria Elisabeth, * 13/12 1680, † 26/08 1741;
10.   Leopold Joseph, * 02/06 1682, † 03/08 1684;
11.   Maria Anna, * 07/09 1683, † 14/08 1754;
   m 1708 King John V of Portugal; * 1706; † 1750;
12.   Maria Theresa, * 22/08 1684, † 28/09 1696;
13.   Charles VI, (056); * 01/10 1685, † 20/10 1740;
      m 1708 Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; * 1691; † 1750;
14.   Maria Josefa, * 16/03 1687, † 14/04 1703;
15.   Maria Magdalena, * 26/03 1689, † 01/05 1743;
16.   Maria Margaretha, * 22/07 1690, † 22/04 1691;
055 EMPEROR
1705-1711
Joseph I = Josef I
s(054); * 26/07 1678; † 17/04 1711, died of smallpox;
King of Hungary from 09/12 1687 as Jozsef I;
Crowned 09/12 1687;
King of Bohemia from 05/05 1705;
Roman King from 24/01 1690;
Emperor from 05/05 1705;

Amalia, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg; * 26/04 1673, m 24/02 1699, † 10/04 1742;
children :
1.   Maria Josepha, * 08/12 1699, † 17/11 1757;
     m 20/08 1718 or 1719 King Frederick Augustus of Poland, Elector of Saxony; * 17/10 1696; † 05/10 1763;
2.   Leopold Joseph, * 29/10 1700, † 04/08 1701;
3.   Maria Amalia, * 22/10 1701, † 11/12 1758;
   m 05/100 1722 Elector Charles VII of Bavaria, (Bavaria 940) + (Germ.057); * 06/08 1697; † 20/01 1745;
056 1711-1740 Charles VI = Karl VI
s(054); * 01/10 1685; † 20/10 1740;
Holy Roman Emperor and King of Germany from 12/10 1711;
King of Hungary from 22/5 1712 to 1740 as Karoly III;
King of Bohemia from 17/04 1711 to 1740;
King of Croatia & Slavonia from 1711 to 1740;
King of Sardinia from 1713 to 1720;
King of Sicily from 1713 to 1714;
King of Naples from 1713-1735;
Archduke of Austria from 1711 to 1740;
Duke of Guastalla from 1735 to 1740;
Duke of Parma from 1735 to 1740;
Count of Barcelona from 1705 to 1714; the last count;

Elisabeth-Christine; * 28/08 1691, m 23/04 1708, † 21/12 1750; d Duke Louis Rudolph of Braunschweig-Lüneburg;
children :
1.   Leopold John, * 12/04 or 13/04 1716, † 04/11 or 14/11 1716;
2.   Maria Theresa, * 13/05 1717, † 29/11 1780;
   m Francis I Stephen (058);
3.   Maria Anna, * 14/09 1718, † 16/12 1744;
     m 1744 Charles Alexander of Lorraine; * 12/12 1712; † 04/07 1780; b (058);
4.   Maria Amalia, * 05/04 1724, † 04/07 1730;
057 1742-1745 Charles VII = Karl VII af Bayern
hd(055); * 1697; † 20/01 1745;
Elector and Duke of Bavaria (Bav.940);
Emperor 24/01 1742; First of Wittelsbacher line:

Maria Amalia; * 22/10 1701; m 1722; † 11/12 1758; d (055); d Emperor Joseph I;
058 EMPEROR
1745-1765
Francis I Stephen = Franz I Stephan
s Duke Leopold of Lorraine (1679-1729); * 08/12 1708; † 18/08 1765;
Holy Roman Emperor 13/09 1745;
Duke of Lorraine from 1729 to 1736 as Franz III Stephan;
Duke of Tuscany from 1737;

Maria Theresa, d (056); Queen of Bohemia and Hungary; * 13/05 1717, m 12/02 1736, † 29/11 1780;
children :
  1.   Marie Elisabeth, * 05/02 1737, † 07/06 1740;
  2.   Marie Anna, * 06/10 1738, † 12/01 1789;
  3.   Marie Karoline, * 12/01 1740, † 25/01 1741;
  4.   Joseph II, (059), * 13/03 1741, † 20/02 1790;
     Also Bohemian King;
  5.   Marie Christine, * 13/05 1742, † 24/06 1798;
   m 1766 Duke Albert of Teschen; * 1738; † 1822;
  6.   Marie Elisabeth, * 13/08 1743, † 22/09 1808;
  7.   Karl Joseph, *01/02 1745, † 18/01 1761;
  8.   Marie Amalia, * 26/02 1746, † 18/06 1804;
   m 1769 Duke Ferdinando of Parma; * 1751; † 1802;
  9.   Leopold II, (060), * 05/05 1747, † 01/03 1792;
     Also Bohemian King;
10.   Karoline, * 17/09 1748, † 17/09 1748;
11.   Johanna, * 04/02 1750, † 23/12 1762;
12.   Josepha, * 19/03 1751, † 15/10 1767;
13.   Karia Karoline, * 13/08 1752, † 08/09 1814;
   m 1768 Ferdinand de Bourbon of Spain; * 1751; † 1825;
14.   Ferdinand, * 01/06 1754, † 24/12 1806;
   m 1771 Maria Beatrice d'Este; * 1750; † 1829;
15.   Marie Antoinette, * 02/11 1755, † 16/10 1793;
   m 1770 Louis XVI of France; * 1754; † 1793;
16.   Maximilian, * 08/12 1762, † 27/06 1801;
059 EMPEROR
1765-1790
Joseph II = Josef II
s(058); * 13/03 1741; † 20/02 1790;
Roman King 27/03 1764;
Emperor 18/08 1765;
King of Hungary and Bohemia 29/11 1780;

Isabella of Parma, * 1741, m(1) 1760, † 1763;
children :
1.   Maria Theresa, * 20/03 1762, † 23/01 1770;
2.   Marie Christine, * 22/11 1763, † 22/11 1763;

Maria Josefa of Bavaria, * 1739, m(2) 1765, † 1767;
no children;
060 EMPEROR
1790-1792
Leopold II
s(058); * 05/05 1747; † 01/03 1792;
Emperor 20/02 or 30/9 1790 to 1792; abdicated;
Grand Duke or Duke of Tuscany 18/08 1765-1790 - See the Medici chronology;
King of Bohemia from 1790 to 1792;
King of Hungary from 1790 to 1792 as Lipot;

Maria Luisa de Bourbon of Spain, * 24/11 1745, m 05/08 1765, † 15/05 1792; d Charles III of Spain;
children :
  1.   Maria Theresa, * 14/01 1767, † 07/11 1827;
   m 1787 King Anton I of Saxony, 1755-1836;
  2.   Francis II, (061)* 12/02 1768, † 02/03 1835;
  3.   Ferdinand III, * 06/05 1769, † 18/06 1824;
     Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1790-1802;
     m(1) 1790 Luisa of Naples and Sicily (Nap. N38-2), 1773-1802;
     m(2) 1821 Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony; * 1796; † 1865;
  4.   Marie Anna, * 21/04 1770, † 01/10 1809;
  5.   Charles, (160); * 05/09 1771, † 30/04 1847;
     Duke of Teschen inherited from uncle by marriage;
     m 1815 Henriette Nassau-Weilburg; * 1797; †1815;
  6.   Alexander Leopold, * 14/08 1772, † 02/07 1795; Palatine of Hungary;
  7.   Albrecht Johann, * 19/12 1773, † 22/07 1774;
  8.   Maximilian, * 23/12 1774, † 09/03 1778;
  9.   Joseph, * 09/03 1776, † 13/01 1847; Palatine of Hungary;
     m(1) 1799 Duchess Aleaxandra Pavlovna of Russia; * 1783; † 1801;
     m(2) 1815 Hermine of Anhalt; * 1797; † 1817;
     m(3) 1819 Maria Dorothea of Württenburg; * 1797; † 1855;
10.   Marie Klementine, * 24/04 1777, † 15/11 1801;
     m 1797 King Francesco I of the Two Sicilies (Nap N41); * 1777; † 1830;
11.   Anton, * 31/08 1779, † 02/04 1835;
12.   Maria Amalia, * 15/10 1780, † 25/12 1798;
13.   John, * 11/05 1782, † 11/05 1859; Prince of the People;
   m 1827 Anna Plöchl; * 1804; † 1885;
14.   Rainer, * 30/09 1783, † 16/01 1853; Viceroy of Lombardy;
     m 1820 Maria Francesca of Savoy-Carignan; * 1800; † 1856;
15.   Ludwig, * 13/12 1784, † 21/12 1784;
16.   Rudolf, * 08/01 1788, † 23/07 1831;
160 1771-1847 Charles; Duke of Teschen inherited from uncle by marriage;
s(060); * 05/09 1771, † 30/04 1847;

Henrietta of Nassau, * 1797, m 1815, † 1829;
children :
1.   Maria Theresa, * 31/07 1816, † 08/08 1867;
     m 1837 King Ferdinando II of the Two Sicilies; * 1810; † 1859;
2.   Albrecht, * 3/8 1817, † 18/2 1895; Duke of Teschen;
   m 1844 Hildegarte of Bavaria; * 1825; † 1864;
3.   Carl Ferdinand, * 29/07 1818, † 20/11 1874;
   m 1854 Elisabeth of Austria; * 1831; † 1903;
4.   Friederich, * 14/05 1821, † 05/10 1847;
5.   Rudolf, * 25/09 1822, † 23/10 1822;
6.   Maria Caroline, * 10/09 1825, † 17/07 1915;
   m 1852 Rainer; * 1827; † 1913;
7.   Wilhelm, * 21/04 1827, † 29/07 1894;
061 EMPEROR
1792-1806
EMPEROR AUSTRIA
1806-1835
Francis II = Frans II, Holy Roman Emperor;
s(060); * 12/02 1768; † 02/03 1835;
Emperor 05/07 1792; Abdicated 06/08 1806;
Emperor of Austria as Francis I from 1806;
King of Bohemia from 1792 as Frantisek;
King of Hungary from 1792 as Ferenc;

Elisabeth of Württemburg, * 1767, m(1) 1788, † 1790;
child :
1.   Ludovika Elisabeth, * 18/02 1790, † 24/06 1791;

Maria Theresa of Naples, * 1772, m(2) 1790, † 1807; d Ferdinand I (Nap. N38-1);
children :
  2.   Marie Louise, * 12/12 1791, † 17/12 1847;
   m(1) 1810 Napoleon Bonaparte; * 1769; † 1821;
   m(2) 1821 Graf Adam von Neipperg; * 1775; † 1829;
   m(3) 1834 Count Charles de Bombelles; * 1785; † 1856;
  3.   Ferdinand I, (163); * 19/04 1793, † 29/06 1875;
  4.   Marie Caroline, * 08/06 1794, † 16/03 1795;
  5.   Caroline, * 04/12 1795, † 16/03 1799;
  6.   Marie Leopoldine, * 22/01 1797, † 11/12 1826;
     m 1817 Emperor Pedro IV of Brazil; * 1798; † 1834;
  7.   Marie Clementine, * 01/03 1798, † 03/09 1881;
   m 1816 King Leopold of the Two Sicilies; * 1790; † 1851;
  8.   Joseph Franz, * 09/04 1799, † 30/06 1807;
  9.   Caroline, * 08/04 1801, † 22/05 1832;
   m 1819 King Friedrich August of Saxony; * 1797; † 1854;
10.   Franz Karl, * 07/12 1802, m 1824, † 08/03 1878;
   m Sophie of Bavaria; * 1805; † 1872;
11.   Marie Anne, * 08/06 1804, † 28/12 1858;
12.   Johann, * 30/08 1805, † 19/02 1809;
13.   Amalia Theresa, * 06/04 1807, † 09/04 1807;

Ludovica of Austria-Este, * 1787, m(3) 1808, † 1816;
no children;

Caroline Augusta of Bavaria, * 1792, m(4) 1816, † 1873;
no children;

 
Det tyske kejserrige opløstes i 1806 og erstattedes i 1815 af Det Tyske Forbund, der eksisterede 1815-1866, hvorefter der dannedes et Nordtysk Forbund fra 1867-1871.

I 1871 blev riget igen til et kejserrige under Hohenzollernslægten ved kejser Wilhelm I, 1871-1888. I 1888 blev sønnen Frederik III kejser, men døde samme år den 15/06 efter at have regeret i 99 dage, og pladsen udfyldtes af hans søn, Wilhelm II, der var kejser 1888-1918. Han døde i 1941 i Holland.
Se nærmere om Brandenburg og Preussen.

Østrig
For at komplementere Det Tyske Kejserdømme, så medtages det tysk-østrigske område med de østrigske kejserslægter herunder.

The Austrian Empire
No. Living
Ruling
Names and remarks
162 = 061 EMPEROR
1804-1835
Francis I, Emperor of Austria;
Only the two children important for the line of succession are included here. See under no. (061) for all wives and children;

children :
  3.   Ferdinand I, (163); * 19/04 1793, † 29/06 1875;
10.   Franz Karl, (164); * 07/12 1802, † 08/03 1878;
163 EMPEROR
1835-1848
Ferdinand I
s(162); * 19/04 1793, † 29/06 1875;

Maria Anna of Savoy; * 1803, m 1831, † 1884;
no children ;
164 - Franz Karl;
s(162); * 07/12 1802, † 08/03 1878;

Sophie of Bavaria, * 1805, m 1824, † 1872;
children :
1.   Franz Joseph I; (165); * 18/08 1830; m 1854; † 21/11 1916;
2.   Ferdinand Maximilian; * 06/07 1832; † 19/06 1867; Emperor of Brazil - executed;
     m 1857 Charlotte of Belgium, 1840-1927;
3.   Karl Ludwig; (166); * 30/07 1833; † 19/05 1896;
     m 21/10 1862 Maria Annunziata of Sicily (Norm. 090-5); * 24/03 1843; † 04/05 1871;
4.   Maria Anna Pia; * 27/10 1835; † 18/01 1840;
5.   Ludwig Victor; * 15/05 1842; † 18/01 1919;
165 EMPEROR
1848-1916
Franz Joseph Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary
s(164); * 18/08 1830; m 1854; † 21/11 1916;

Elisabeth of Bavaria; * 24/12 1837; m 24/04 1854; † 10/09 1898;
children :
1.   Sophie; * 05/03 1855; † 29/05 1857;
2.   Gisela; * 12/07 1856; † 27/07 1932;
   m 1873 Prince Leopold of Bavaria; * 1846; † 1930;
3.   Rudolf; * 21/08 1858; † 30/01 1889; Crown Prince, committed suicide;
   m 1881 Stephanie of Belgium; * 1864; † 1945;
   they got:
     a) Elisabeth; * 1883; † 1963;
     m(1) Prince Otto zu Windischgrätz, 1873-1952; divorced 1902;
     m(2) 1948 Leopold Petzneck, 1881-1956;
4.   Marie Valerie; * 22/04 1868; † 06/09 1924;
   m 1890 Franz Salvator; * 1866; † 1939;
166 - Karl Ludwig
s(164); * 30/07 1833; † 19/05 1896;

Margaretha of Saxony; * 1840; m(1) 1856; † 1878?;
children :
1.   Franz Ferdinand; * 18/12 1863; † 28/06 1914; Assassinated in Sarejevo;
     m morganatically 1900 to Sophie Chotek von Chotkowa; * 1868; † 1914;
2.   Otto; (167); * 21/04 1865; † 01/11 1906;
     m 1886 Maria Josepha of Saxony; * 1867; † 1944;
3.   Ferdinand; * 27/12 1868; † 10/03 1915;
     m 1909 Bertha Czuber;
4.   Margarete Sophie; * 13/05 1870; † 24/08 1902;
     m 1893 Duke Albert of Württemburg; * 1865; † 1939;
5.   Maria Annunziata; * 31/07 1876; † 08/04 1961;
6.   Elisabeth; * 07/07 1878; † 13/03 1960;
     m 1903 Prince Alois von und zu Liechtenstein; * 1866; † 1955;

Maria Annunziata of the Two Sicilies; * 1843; m(2) 1862; † 1871;
no children ;

Maria Theresa de Braganza of Portugal; * 1855; m(3) 1873; † 1944;
no children ;
167 - Otto
s(166); * 21/04 1865; † 01/11 1906;

Maria Josepha of Saxony; * 1867; m 1866; † 1944;
children :
1.   Karl; (168); * 17/08 1887; † 01/03 1922;
2.   Maximilian; * 13/04 1895; † 17/01 1955;
     m 1917 Franziska zu Hohenlohe; * 1897; † 1989;
168 EMPEROR
1916-1918
Karl I, Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary;
s(167); * 17/08 1887; † 01/03 1922;

Zita de Bourbon-Parma; * 1892; m 1911; † 1989;
children :
1.   Otto; * 20/11 1912; † ?; Dr. Otto von Habsburg;
   m 1951 Regina von Saxe-Meiningen, * 1925;
2.   Adelheid; * 03/01 1914; † 02/10 1971;
3.   Robert of Austria-Este; * 08/02 1915; † 07/02 1996;
4.   Felix; * 31/05 1916; † ?;
5.   Carl Ludwig; * 10/03 1918; † ?;
6.   Rudolf of Austria; * 05/09 1919; † ?;
7.   Charlotte of Austria; * 21/03 1921; † 23/07 1989;
8.   Elisabeth of Austria; * 31/05 1922; † ?;

 
Link til referencelitteraturen og kilder.

Jørgen Marcussen
 
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